John Owen, Two short Catechisms.

Two  short  Catechisms: wherein the Principles of  the  Doctrine  of
Christ, are unfolded and explained.

Proper  fort  all  persons to learn before they de admitted  to  the
sacrament  of  the Lord's supper; and composed for the  use  of  all
congregations in general.

"Come, ye children, hearken to me; I will teach you the fear of  the
Lord," Ps. 34: 11

Prefatory Note.

The first edition of these Catechisms issued from the press in 1645.
Dr  Owen  had  at that time the charge of the parish of  Fordham  in
Essex,  and  laboured diligently for the instruction and benefit  of
his  flock, by catechising from house to house. The catechisms  were
prepared  in  order that he might accomplish these parochial  duties
with  greater  efficiency  and success. "The  Lesser  Catechism"  is
designed for the instruction of children; - "The Greater,"  for  the
examination  of  persons more advanced in years.  They  are  chiefly
doctrinal.  It  was the intention of Owen to have followed  up  this
little  work  by  another Catechism on the Lord's  Prayer,  the  Ten
Commandments,  and  some  articles of  the  Creed.  This  intention,
however, was never fulfilled. These Catechisms on "the Principles of
the  Doctrine  of  Christ"  are included in  this  volume,  -  which
embodies  all the treatises of Owen directly relating to the  second
Person  of  the Trinity, - inasmuch as, according to a statement  of
the  author in the preface, they were intended to remind his  people
of  what  he  had  publicly taught them, "especially concerning  the
person  and  offices of Christ." They were among the firsts  as  the
other  treatises in this volume are among the last, of our  author's
publications;  and  we  are thus enabled  to  mark  the  undeviating
consistency with which, during all the ministrations of  his  public
course, Owen held fast by the great doctrines of the Gospel,  -  the
unsearchable riches of Christ." - Ed.

To my Loving Neighbours and Christian Friends.


    My  heart's desire and request unto God for you is, that you may
be  saved.  I say the truth in Christ also, I lie not, my conscience
bearing  me  witness in the Holy Ghost, that I have great heaviness,
and  continual sorrow in my heart, for them amongst you who, as yet,
walk  disorderly, and not as beseemeth the Gospel, little  labouring
to acquaint themselves with the mystery of godliness; for many walk,
of  whom I have told you often weeping, and now tell you again  with
sorrow, that they are the enemies of the cross of Christ, whose  end
is destruction, whose god is their belly, who mind earthly things.
    You  know,  brethren, how I have been amongst you, and  in  what
manner,  for these few years past, and how I have kept back  nothing
(to  the  utmost  of  the  dispensation to me  committed)  that  was
profitable  unto you; but have showed you, and taught  you  publicly
and  from house to house, testifying to all repentance towards  God,
and  faith  towards our Lord Jesus Christ. Now, with what  sincerity
this  has been by me performed, with what issue and success  by  you
received,  God the righteous Judge will one day declare; for  before
him  must  both  you  and  I  appear, to  give  an  account  of  the
dispensation of the glorious Gospel amongst us; - in the  meanwhile,
the  desire of my heart is, to be servant to the least of you in the
work of the Lord; and that in any way which I can concede profitable
unto you, - either in your persons or your families.
    Now, amongst my endeavours in this kind, after the ordinance  of
public  preaching  the  Word, there is not,  I  conceive,  any  more
needful  (as all will grant that know the estate of this place,  how
taught  of  late  days, how full of grossly ignorant  persons)  than
catechising;  which has caused me to set aside some  hours  for  the
compiling  of  these  following, which also I have  procured  to  be
printed,  merely because the least part of the parish  are  able  to
read  it  in writing; - my intention in them being, principally,  to
hold  out  those  necessary  truths wherein  you  have  been  in  my
preaching  more fully instructed. As they are, the  use  of  them  I
shall briefly present unto you: -
    1.  The Lesser Catechism may be so learned of the younger  sort,
that they may be ready to answer to every question thereof.
    2.  The  Greater will call to mind much of what has been  taught
you in public, especially concerning the Person and Offices of Jesus
    3.  Out  of that you may have help to instruct your families  in
the  Lesser, being so framed, for the most part, that a  chapter  of
the one is spent in unfolding a question of the other.
    4.  The  texts of Scripture quoted are diligently to  be  sought
out  and pondered, that you may know indeed whether these things are
    5.  In reading the Word, you may have light into the meaning  of
many places, by considering what they are produced to confirm.
    6.  I  have  been  sparing in the doctrine  of  the  Sacraments,
because I have already been so frequent in examinations about them.
    7.  The handling of moral duties I have wholly omitted, because,
by  God's  assistance, I intend for you a brief explication  of  the
Lord's  Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, with some articles of  the
Creed,  not unfolded in these, by themselves, by the way of question
and answer.
    Now,  in  all this, as the pains has been mine, so I  pray  that
the benefit may be yours, and the praise His, to whom alone any good
that is in this or any thing else is to be ascribed. Now, the God of
heaven  continue  that  peace, love, and amity,  amongst  ourselves,
which  hitherto has been unshaken, in these divided times, and grant
that  the  sceptre and kingdom of his Son may be gloriously advanced
in  your hearts, that the things which concern your peace may not be
hidden from your eyes in this your day; Which is the daily prayer of
    Your servant in the work of the Lord,

From my Study,
September the last, [1645].

The Lesser Catechism.
Ques.  Whence  is  all  truth concerning God  and  ourselves  to  be
Ans.  From the holy Scripture, the Word of God. - Chapter 1  of  the
Greater Catechism.

Q. What do the Scriptures teach that God is?
A.  An  eternal,  infinite, most holy Spirit, giving  being  to  all
things, and doing with them whatsoever he pleaseth. - Chap. 2.

Q. Is there but one God?
A.  One only, in respect of his essence and being, but one in  three
distinct persons, of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. - Chap. 3.

Q. What else is held forth in the Word concerning God, that we ought
to know.?
A. His decrees, and his works. - Chap. 4.

Q. What are the decrees of God concerning us?
A.  His  eternal purposes, of saving some by Jesus Christ,  for  the
praise  of  his  glory, and of condemning others for their  sins.  -
Chap. 5.

Q. What are the works of God?
A. Acts or doings of his power, whereby he createth, sustaineth, and
governeth all things. - Chap. 6.

Q. What is required from us towards Almighty God?
A.  Holy and spiritual obedience, according to his law given unto us
- Chap. 7.

Q. Are we able to do this of ourselves?
A. No, in no wise, being by nature unto every good work reprobate. -
Chap. 7.

Q.  How came we into this estate, being at the first created in  the
image of God, in righteousness and innocency?
A.  By the fall of our first parents, breaking the covenant of  God,
losing his grace, and deserving his curse. - Chap. 8.

Q. By what way may we be delivered from this miserable estate?
A. Only by Jesus Christ. - Chap. 9.

Q. What is Jesus Christ?
A.  God  and man united in one person, to be a mediator between  God
and man. - Chap 10.

Q. What is he unto us?
A. A King, a Priest, and a Prophet. - Chap. 11.

Q. Wherein does he exercise his kingly power towards us?
A.  In  converting us unto God by his Spirit, subduing us  unto  his
obedience, and ruling in us by his grace. - Chap. 12.

Q.  In  what does the exercise of his priestly office for us chiefly
A.  In offering up himself an acceptable sacrifice on the cross,  so
satisfying the justice of God for our sins, removing his curse  from
our persons, and bringing us unto him. - Chap. 13.

Q. Wherein does Christ exercise his prophetical office towards us?
A. In revealing to our hearts, from the bosom of his Father, the way
and truth whereby we must come unto him. - Chap. 13.

Q. In what condition does Jesus Christ exercise these offices?
A.  He  did in a low estate of humiliation on earth, but  now  in  a
glorious estate of exaltation in heaven. - Chap. 14.

Q. For whose sake does Christ perform all these?
A. Only for his elect. - Chap. 15.

Q. What is the church of Christ?
A.  The universal company of God's elect, called to the adoption  of
children. - Chap. 16.

Q. How come we to be members of this church?
A. By a lively faith. - Chap. 17.

Q. What is a lively faith?
A.  An  assured resting of the soul upon God's promises of mercy  in
Jesus  Christ, for pardon of sins here and glory hereafter. -  Chap.

Q. How come we to have this faith?
A.  By  the  effectual working of the Spirit of God in  our  hearts,
freely calling us from the state of nature to the state of grace.  -
Chap. 18.

Q. Are we accounted righteous for our faith?
A. No, but only for the righteousness of Christ, freely imputed unto
us, and laid hold of by faith. - Chap. 19.

Q. 1. Is there no more required of us but faith only?
A. Yes; repentance also, and holiness. - Chap. 20.

Q. 2. What is repentance?
A.  A  forsaking  of all sin, with godly sorrow  for  what  we  have
committed. - Chap. 20.

Q. 3. What is that holiness which is required of us?
A.  Universal obedience to the will of God revealed unto us. - Chap.

Q. What are the privileges of believers?
A.  First,  union  with  Christ;  secondly,  adoption  of  children;
thirdly,  communion of saints; fourthly, right to the seals  of  the
new  covenant; fifthly, Christian liberty; sixthly, resurrection  of
the body to life eternal. - Chap. 21.

Q. 1. What are the sacraments, or seals, of the new covenant?
A.  Visible seals of God's spiritual promises, made unto us  in  the
blood of Jesus Christ. - Chap. 22.

Q. 2. Which be they?
A. Baptism and the Lord's supper.

Q. What is baptism?
A.  A  holy ordinance, whereby, being sprinkled with water according
to  Christ's institution, we are by his grace made children of  God,
and have the promises of the covenant sealed unto us. - Chap. 23.

Q. What is the Lord's supper?
A.  A  holy  ordinance  of  Christ, appointed  to  communicate  unto
believers his body and blood spiritually, being represented by bread
and wine, blessed, broken, poured out, and received of them. - Chap.

Q. Who have a right unto this sacrament?
A.  They only who have an interest in Jesus Christ by faith. - Chap.

Q. What is the communion of saints?
A.  A  holy conjunction between all God's people, partakers  of  the
same Spirit, and members of the same mystical body. - Chap. 25.

Q. What is the end of all this dispensation?
A. The glory of God in our salvation.
Glory be to God on high!
The Greater Catechism.

Chap. 1 - Of The Scripture.

Ques. 1. What is Christian religion?
The only way                   John 14: 5, 6, 17: 3; Acts  4:
                               Every  one  out  of  this  way
                               everlastingly damned.
of knowing God aright,         The  life  of religion  is  in
                               the Life.
and living unto him.           Col.  1:  10;  2 Cor.  5:  15;
                               Gal. 2: 19, 20.

Q. 2. Whence is it to be learned?
From the holy Scripture only.  Isa. 8: 20; John 5: 39.
                               Popish  traditions  are  false
                               lights, leading from God.

Q. 3. What is the Scripture?
The books of the Old           Isa. 8: 20; Rom. 3: 2.
and New Testament,             Rev. 22: 19, 20.
                               The     authority    of    the
                               Scripture  dependeth  not   on
                               the  authority of the  church,
                               as the Papists blaspheme.
                               All      human      inventions
                               unnecessary   helps   in   the
                               worship of God.
                               The  word thereof is the  sole
                               directory for faith,  worship,
                               and life.
given  by  inspiration   from  2  Tim. 3: 16, 17; Ps. 19:  7,
God,  containing  all  things  8; Jer. 7: 13; John 20: 31.
necessary to be believed  and
done,   that   God   may   be
worshipped  and   our   souls

Q. 4. How know you them to be the word of God?
By  the  testimony  of  God's  Matt.  16: 17; John 16: 13;  1
Spirit,                        Thess.  2: 13; 1 John  2:  20,
                               5: 6.
                               This   alone  persuadeth   and
                               inwardly convinceth the  heart
                               of  the  divine verity of  the
                               Scripture;   other    motives,
                               also,  there are from without,
                               and unanswerable arguments  to
                               prove  the truth of them,  as,
                               -   1.  Their  antiquity;   2.
                               Preservation  from  fury;   3.
                               Prophecies  in  them;  4.  The
                               holiness and majesty of  their
                               doctrine  agreeable   to   the
                               nature  of  God; 5.  Miracles;
                               6.   The   testimony  of   the
                               church  of  all ages;  7.  The
                               blood  of innumerable martyrs,
working faith in my heart  to  Luke  24:  32; 1 Cor.  2:  14;
close   with  that   heavenly  Heb. 4: 12; 2 Pet. 1: 19.
majesty,  and  clear   divine
truth, that shineth in them.

Chap. 2 - Of God.

Q. 1. What do the Scriptures teach concerning God?
First,  what he  is,  or  his  Exod. 3: 14; Isa. 45: 6;  Heb.
nature;  secondly,  what   he  1: 1-3, 11: 6.
does, or his works.

Q. 2. What is God in himself?
An Eternal,                    Deut. 33:27; Isa. 57:15;  Rev.
infinite,                      1  Kings 8: 27; Ps. 139:  2-5,
                               The  perfection of God's being
                               is  known  of  us  chiefly  by
                               removing all imperfections.
                               Hence  the  abominable  vanity
                               of   idolaters,  and  of   the
                               blasphemous   Papists,    that
                               picture God.
incomprehensible               Exod. 33: 20; 1 Tim. 6: 16.
                               Let us prostrate ourselves  in
                               holy  adoration of that  which
                               we cannot comprehend.
Spirit,                        John 4:24.
giving  being to all  things,  Gen.  1:  1; Ps. 115: 3,  135:
and     doing    with    them  6;  Isa. 46: 10; John  5:  17;
whatsoever he pleaseth.        Heb. 1: 2.

Q. 3. Do we here know God as he is?
No, his glorious being is not  Exod. 33: 23; 1 Cor. 13: 12.
of  us, in this life,  to  be

Q. 4. Whereby is God chiefly made known unto us in the Word?
First, by his names;           Exod.  3:  14, 6: 3;  Ps.  83:
secondly,  by his  attributes  Exod. 34: 6,7; Matt. 5: 48.
or properties.

Q. 5. What are the names of God?
Glorious titles, which he has  Exod. 3: 14, 15, 6: 3, 34:  6,
given  himself, to hold forth  7; Gen. 17: 1.
his   excellencies  unto  us,  The   divers  names   of   God
with some perfections whereby  signify   one  and  the   same
he will reveal himself.        thing,   but   under   diverse
                               notions  in  respect  of   our

Q. 6. What are the attributes of God?
His  infinite perfections  in  Rev. 4: 8-11.
being and working.

Q. 7. What are the chief attributes of his being?
Eternity,                      Deut. 33: 27; Ps. 93: 2;  Isa.
                               57: 15; Rev. 1: 11.
infiniteness,                  l  Kings 8: 27; Ps. 139:  1-4,
Simplicity or purity,          Exod. 3: 14.
                               Some   of   these   attributes
                               belong  so unto God,  as  that
                               they  are  in no  sort  to  be
                               ascribed  to any  else,  -  as
                               infiniteness,  eternity,   &c.
                               Others   are  after   a   sort
                               attributed  to  some  of   his
                               creatures,    in    that    he
                               communicates  unto  them  some
                               of  the  effects  of  them  in
                               himself;  - as life, goodness,
                               The   first   of   these   are
                               motives  to  humble adoration,
                               fear,   self-abhorrency;   the
                               other,  to faith, hope,  love,
                               and  confidence, through Jesus
all-sufficiency,               Gen. 17: l; Ps. 135: 4-6.
Perfectness,                   Job 11: 7-9; Rom. 11: 33-36.
immutability,                  Mal. 3: 6; James 1: 17.
life,                          Judges  viii 19;  1  Sam.  25:
                               34;  2 Kings iii 14; Ezek. 14:
                               16,  16:  48;  Matt.  16:  16;
                               Acts 14: 15; 1 Thess. 1: 9.
will,                          Dan.  4: 35; Isa. 46: 10; Eph.
                               1: 5, 11; James 1: 18.
and understanding.             Ps.  7:  8,  139: 2,  147:  4;
                               Jer. 11: 20; Heb. 4: 13.

Q.  8. What are the attributes which usually are ascribed to him  in
his works, or the acts of his will?
Goodness,                      Ps. 119: 68; Matt. 19: 17.
power,                         Exod.  15:  11;  Ps.  62:  11;
                               Rev. 19: 1.
                               Nothing   is  to  be  ascribed
                               unto  God,  nor  imagined   of
                               him,   but  what  is   exactly
                               agreeable    to   those    his
                               glorious properties
                               These   last   are   no   less
                               essential  unto God  than  the
                               former   -   only   we    thus
                               distinguish   them,    because
                               these are chiefly seen in  his
justice,                       Zeph.  3: 5; Ps. 11:  7;  Jer.
                               12: l; Rom. 1: 32.
mercy,                         Ps.  130: 7; Rom. 9: 15;  Eph.
                               2: 4.
holiness,                      Exod. 15: 11; Josh. 24: 19.
wisdom,                        Hab. 1: 13; Rev. 4: 8.
and   the   like;  which   he  Rom. 11: 33, 16: 27.
delighteth    to     exercise
towards  his  creatures,  for
the praise of his glory.

Chap. 3 - Of the Holy Trinity.

Q. 1. Is there but one God to whom these properties do belong?
One  only, in respect of  his  Deut. 6: 4; Matt. 19: 17;  Eph
essence and being,             4: 5, 6.
but  one  in  three  distinct  Gen.  1:  26;  1  John  5:  7;
persons, of Father, Son,  and  Matt. 28: 19.
Holy Ghost.

Q. 2. What mean you by person?
A    distinct    manner    of  John 5: 17; Heb. 1: 3.
subsistence     or     being,  This  is  that mysterious  ark
distinguished from the  other  that  must not be pried  into,
persons     by    its     own  nor  the  least tittle  spoken
properties.                    about    it,   wherein   plain
                               Scripture goes not before.
                               To  deny the Deity of any  one
                               person,  is in effect to  deny
                               the    whole    Godhead    for
                               whosoever  has  not  the  Son,
                               has not the Father.
                               This  only  doctrine  remained
                               undefiled in the Papacy.

Q.  3.  What  is  the distinguishing property of the person  of  the
To  be  of  himself only  the  John 5: 26, 27; Eph. 1: 3.
fountain of the Godhead.       

Q. 4. What is the property of the Son?
To  be begotten of his Father  Ps. 2: 7; John 1: 14, 3: 16.
from eternity.

Q. 5. What of the Holy ghost?
To  proceed  from the  Father  John  14: 17, 16: 14, 15:  26,
and the Son.                   20: 22.

Q. 6. Are these three one?
One  every  way,  in  nature,  John 10: 30; Rom. 3: 30.
will,      and      essential
distinguished only  in  their  John 15: 26; 1 John 5: 7.
personal      manner       of

Q. 7. Can we conceive these things as they are in themselves?
Neither we                     1 Tim. 6: 16.
nor  yet the angels of heaven  Isa. 6: 2, 3.
are  at all able to dive into  We  must  labour to  make  out
these  secrets, as  they  are  comfort  from the proper  work
internally God;                of every person towards us.
but in respect of the outward  Col. 1: 11-14.
dispensation of themselves to  
us  by  creation, redemption,
and     sanctification,     a
knowledge may be attained  of
these   things,  saving   and

Chap.  4.  -  Of  the Works of God; and, First, of  those  that  are
Internal and Immanent.

Q. 1. What do the Scriptures teach concerning the works of God?
That  they are of two  sorts;  Acts 15: 18; Prov. 16: 4.
first,   internal,   in   his  The  purposes and  decrees  of
counsel,     decrees,     and  God,   so   far  as   by   him
purposes,     towards     his  revealed, are objects  of  our
creatures;          secondly,  faith, and full of comfort.
external,  in his works  over  
and about them, to the praise  
of his own glory.

Q. 2. What are the decrees of God?
Eternal,                       Mic.  5: 2; Eph. 3: 9-11; Acts
                               15: 18.
unchangeable                   Isa.  14: 24, 46: 10; Rom.  9:
                               11; 2 Tim. 2: 19.
purposes    of   his    will,  Farther   reasons   of    Gods
concerning  the   being   and  decrees  than  his  own  will,
well-being of his creatures.   not to be inquired after.
                               The  changes in the  scripture
                               ascribed unto God are only  in
                               the  outward dispensations and
                               works,  variously  tending  to
                               one  infallible event, by  him
                               The  Armenians' blasphemy,  in
                               saying God sometimes fails  of
                               his purposes.

Q.  3. Concerning which of his creatures chiefly are his decrees  to
be considered?
Angels  and  men,  for   whom  1 Tim. 5: 21; Jude 6.
other things were ordained.

Q. 4. What are the decrees of God concerning men?
Election and reprobation.      Rom. 9: 11-13.

Q. 5. What is the decree of election?
The eternal,                   Eph.  1: 4; Acts 13: 48;  Rom.
                               8: 29, 30.
free,                          Matt. 11: 26.
immutable purpose of God,      2 Tim. 2: 19.
                               The  decree of election is the
                               fountain   of  all   spiritual
                               graces,  for they are bestowed
                               only on the elect.
                               In    nothing   does   natural
                               corruption  more exalt  itself
                               against  God, than in opposing
                               the  freedom of his  grace  in
                               his eternal decrees.
whereby  in Jesus  Christ  he  Eph 1: 4, 5; Matt. 22: 14.
chooseth unto himself whom he
out of whole mankind,          Rom. 9: 18-21.
determining  to  bestow  upon  John 6: 37, 17: 6, 9, 11, 24.
them,  for  his  sake,  grace  From  the execration of  these
here,     and     everlasting  decrees   flows  that  variety
happiness hereafter, for  the  and  difference we see in  the
praise  of his glory, by  the  dispensation of the  means  Of
way of mercy.                  grace,   -  God  sending   the
                               Gospel  where he has a remnant
                               according to election.

Q.  6.  Doth  any thing in us move the Lord thus to choose  us  from
amongst others?
No, in no wise; we are in the  Rom. 9: 11, 12; Matt. 11:  25;
same    lump   with    others  1 Cor. 4: 7; 2 Tim. 1: 9.
rejected  when  separated  by
his undeserved grace.

Q. 7. What is the decree of reprobation?
The eternal purpose of God to  Rom.  9: 11, 12, 21, 22; Prov.
suffer  many  to  sin,  leave  16:  4;  Matt. 11: 25,  26;  2
them  in  their sin, and  not  Pet. 2: 12; Jude 4.
giving  them  to  Christ,  to
punish them for their sin.

Chap. 5. - Of the Works of God that outwardly are of Him.

Q.  1.  What  are  the  works  of God  that  outwardly  respect  his
First, of creation; secondly,  Ps. 33: 9; Heb. 1: 2, 3.
of actual providence.          The  very outward works of God
                               are   sufficient  to  convince
                               men  of his eternal power  and
                               Godhead,  and  to  leave  them
                               inexcusable,  if  they   serve
                               him not.

Q. 2. What is the work of creation?
An   act  or  work  of  God's  Gen.  1:  l;  Exod.  20:   11;
almighty  power,  whereby  of  Prov. 16: 4.
nothing,  in  six  days,   he
created  heaven,  earth,  and
the  sea, with all things  in
them contained.

Q. 3. Wherefore did God make man?
For  his  own  glory  in  his  Gen.  1:  26, 27, 2:  16,  17;
service and obedience.         Rom. 9: 23.
                               The  glory  of God  is  to  be
                               preferred   above   our    own
                               either  being  or  well-being,
                               as the supreme end of then.
                               The  approaching unto  God  in
                               his   service  is  the   chief
                               exaltation   of   one   nature
                               above the beasts that perish.

Q.  4.  Was  man  able  to yield the service and  worship  that  God
required of him?
Yea,  to the uttermost, being  Gen.  1:  26; Eccles.  7:  29;
created upright in the  image  Eph. 4: 24; Col. 3: 10.
of God, in purity, innocence,
righteousness, and holiness.

Q.  5. What was the rule whereby man was at first to be directed  in
his obedience?
The  moral or eternal law  of  Gen.  2:  15-17; Rom.  2:  14,
God,  implanted in his nature  15; Eph. 4: 24.
and  written in his heart  by  God  never allowed,  from  the
creation, being the tenor  of  beginning,  that the  will  of
the  covenant between God and  the  creature  should  be  the
him,  sacramentally  typified  measure  of  his  worship  nod
by  the tree of knowledge  of  honour.
good and evil.

Q.  6. Do we stand in the same covenant still, and have we the  same
power to yield obedience unto God?
No;  the covenant was  broken  Gen.  3: 16-18; Gal. 3: 10,11,
by the sin of Adam, with whom  21; Heb. 7: 19, 8: 13.
it was made,                   Though  we have all  lost  our
                               right unto the promise of  the
                               first  covenant, yet  all  not
                               restored  by Christ are  under
                               the   commination  and   curse
our nature corrupted,          Job 14: 4; Ps. 51: 5.
and  all  power  to  do  good  Gen. 6: 5; Jer. 13: 23.
utterly lost.

Chap. 6. - Of God's actual Providence.

Q. 1. What is God's actual providence?
The  effectual working of his  Exod. 4: 11; Job 5: 10-12,  9:
power,  and almighty  act  of  5,  6;  Ps. 147: 4; Prov.  15:
his    will,    whereby    he  3;  Isa. 45: 6, 7; John 5: 17;
sustaineth,  governeth,   and  Acts 17: 28; Heb. 1: 3.
disposeth of all things,  men  To  this providence is  to  be
and  their  actions,  to  the  ascribed  all the good  we  do
ends  which  he has  ordained  enjoy,     and     all     the
for them.                      afflictions we undergo.
                               Fortune,   chance,   and   the
                               like,    are   names   without
                               things, scarce fit to be  used
                               among    Christians,    seeing
                               Providence  certainly   ruleth
                               all to appointed ends.
                               No  free-will in man  exempted
                               either    from   the   eternal
                               decree   or   the   overruling
                               providence of God.

Q.2. How is this providence exercised towards mankind?
Two  ways;  first, peculiarly  Deut.  32:  10;  Ps.  17:   8;
towards his church, or elect,  Zech. 2: 8; Matt. 16: 18,  19:
in   their  generations,  for  2, 29; 1 Pet. 5: 7.
whom are all things;
secondly, towards  all  in  a  Gen.  9: 5; Ps. 75: 6, 7; Isa.
general   manner,  yet   with  45: 6, 7; Matt. 5: 45.
various      and       divers

Q. 3. Wherein chiefly consists the outward providence of God towards
his church?
In  three things; - first, in  Matt. 6: 31-33; Rom. 8: 28;  1
causing  and things  to  work  Tim. 6: 17; 2 Pet. 1: 3.
together for their good;       Though  the  dispensations  of
                               God's  providence towards  his
                               people  be various, yet  every
                               issue  and act of it tends  to
                               one  certain end, - their good
                               in his glory.
secondly,   in   ruling   and  Ps.  105: 14,15; Isa. 44:  28;
disposing     of    kingdoms,  Dan. 2: 44; Rom. 9: 17.
nations,  and  persons,   for
their benefit;
thirdly, in avenging them  of  Isa.  60:  12; Zech. 12:  2-5;
their adversaries.             Luke 17: 7; Rev. 17: 14.

Q.  4.  Does God rule also in and over the sinful actions of  wicked
Yea,  he willingly (according  2  Sam.  12:  11,  16:  10;  1
to  his  determinate counsel)  Kings  11: 31, 22: 22; Job  1:
suffereth them to be, for the  21; Prov. 22: 14; Isa. 10:  6,
manifestation of  his  glory,  7;  Ezek. 21: 19-21;  Amos  7:
and by them effecteth his own  17;  Acts 4: 27, 28;  Rom.  1:
righteous ends.                24,  9: 22; 1 Pet. 2: 8;  Rev.
                               17: 17.
                               Almighty  God  allows  how  in
                               bring  light out of  darkness,
                               good   out   of   evil,    the
                               salvation of his elect out  of
                               Judas's  treachery, the  Jews'
                               cruelty,      and     Pilate's

Chap. 7. Of the Law of God.

Q 1. Which is the law that God gave man at first to fulfil?
The same which was afterwards  Rom. 2: 14, 15.
written  with the  finger  of  This  law  of God  bindeth  us
God in two tables of stone on  now, not because delivered  to
Mount  Horeb, called the  Ten  the  Jews on Mount Horeb,  but
Commandments.                  because written in the  hearts
                               of  all  by the finger of  God
                               at the first.

Q. 2. Is the observation of this law still required of us?
Yes, to the uttermost tittle.  Matt.  5:  17; 1  John  3:  4;
                               Rom.  3:  31; James  2:  8-10;
                               Gal. 3.

Q.   3.   Are  we   able   of  After   the  fall,   the   law
ourselves to perform it?       ceased   to  be  a   rule   of
                               justification,  and  became  a
                               rule for sanctification only.
                               It  is of free grace that  God
                               giveth  power  to  yield   any
                               obedience,  and  accepteth  at
                               any   obedience  that  is  not
No,  in  no wise; the law  is  1  Kings  8:  46; Gen.  6:  5;
spiritual, but we are carnal.  John 15: 5; Rom. 7: 14, 8:  7;
                               1 John 1: 8.

Q4. Did, then, God give a law which could not be kept?
No;  when God gave it, we had  Gen.  1: 26; Eph. 4: 19;  Rom.
power to keep it; which since  5: 12.
we have lost in Adam.

Q. 5. Whereto, then, does the law now serve?
For two general ends;          
first,  to be a rule  of  our  Ps. 19: 7-11; 1 Tim. 1: 8, 9.
duty,  or to discover  to  us
the    obedience    of    God
secondly, lets drive us  unto  Gal. 3: 24.

Q 6. How does the law drive us unto Christ?
Divers ways; as,               
first, by laying open unto us  Rom. 7: 7-9; Gal. 3: 19.
the  utter disability of  our
nature to do any good;
secondly,  by  charging   the  Rom. 3: 19, 20, 4: 15, 5:  20;
wrath  and curse of God,  due  Gal. 3: 10.
to sin, upon the conscience;
thirdly,   by  bringing   the  Gal. 3: 22; Heb. 2: 15.
whole  soul under bondage  to
sin,  death, Satan, and hell,
-  so making us long and seek
for a Saviour.

Chap. 8. - Of the State of Corrupted Nature.

Q. 1. How came this weakness and disability upon us?
By  the sin and shameful fall  Rom. 5: 12, 14.
of our first parents.          This  is  that which  commonly
                               is  called original sin, which
                               in  general denoteth the whole
                               misery  and corruption of  our
                               nature; as, -
                               1.    The   guilt  of   Adam's
                                 actual sin to us imputed;
                               2.   Loss  of  God's  glorious
                                 image,     innocency     and
                               3.   Deriving  by  propagation
                                 a nature - (1.) Defiled with
                                 the  pollution,  (2.)  Laden
                                 with    the   guilt,    (3.)
                                 Subtitled  to the  power  of
                               4.   A  being exposed  to  all
                                 temporal miseries, leading to
                                 and procuring death;
                               5.  An alienation from God,
                               with voluntary obedience to
                               Satan and lust;
                               6.   An  utter  disability  to
                                 good, or to labour for mercy;
                               7.  Eternal damnation of
                               body and soul in hell.

Q. 2. Wherein did that hurt us, their posterity?
Divers ways;                   
first,  in that we  were  all  John  3: 36; Rom. 5: 12;  Eph.
guilty of the same breach  of  2: 3.
covenant with Adam, being all
in him;
secondly, our souls with  his  Gen.  3:10;  Eph  4:  23,  24;
were    deprived   of    that  Col. 3: 10.
holiness,   innocence,    and
righteousness  wherein   they
were at first created;
thirdly,    pollution     and  Job 14: 4; Ps. 51: 7; John  3:
defilement  of  nature   came  6; Rom. 3: 13.
upon us; with,
fourthly,     an      extreme  Gen.  6:5; Eph. 2: 1; Jer.  6:
disability of doing any thing  16, 13: 23; Rom. 8: 7.
that  is  well-pleasing  unto
by  all  which  we  are  made  Gen. 3: 17; Gal. 3: 10.
obnoxious to the curse.

Q. 3. Wherein does the curse of God consist?
In divers things;              
first, in the guilt of death,  Gen.  2:  17; Rom. 1:  18,  5:
temporal and eternal;          12, 17; Eph. 2: 3.
                               All that a natural man has  on
                               this side hell is free mercy.
secondly,  the  loss  of  the  Gen.  3:  24; Ezek.  16:  3-5;
grace and favour of God;       Eph 2: 13.
thirdly, guilt and horror  of  Gen.  3: 10; Isa. 48: 22; Rom.
conscience,    despair    and  3: 9, 19, Gal. 3: 22.
anguish here; with,
fourthly,  eternal  damnation  Gen. 3: 10, 13; John 3: 36.

Q. 4. Are all men born in this estate?
Every one without exception.   Ps.  51:  5; Isa. 53: 6;  Rom.
                               3: 9-12; Eph. 2: 3.

Q. 5. And do they continue therein?
Of   themselves  they  cannot  The   end  of  this  is  Jesus
otherwise do,                  Christ,  to all that  fly  for
                               refuge  to the hope set before
Being able neither to know,    Acts 8: 31, 16: 14; 1 Cor.  2:
                               14; Eph. 5:8; John 1: 5.
nor will,                      Jer.  6:  16, 13: 23; Luke  4:
                               18; Rom. 6: 16, 8: 7.
nor  do  any  thing  that  is  John 6: 44; 2 Cor. 3: 5.
spiritually good and pleasing
unto God.

Q.  6. Have they, then, no way of themselves to escape the curse and
wrath of God?
None at all; they can neither  
satisfy   his  justice,   nor
fulfil his law.

Chap. 9. - Of the Incarnation of Christ.

Q. 1. Shall all mankind, then, everlastingly perish?
No;  God, of his free  grace,  John 3: 16; Isa. 53: 6.
has  prepared a way to redeem
and save his elect.

Q. 2. What way was this?
By  sending his own Son Jesus  Rom. 8: 3.
Christ  in  the  likeness  of  This is that great mystery  of
sinful flesh, condemning  sin  godliness   that  the   angels
in the flesh.                  themselves admire -  the  most
                               transcendent   expression   of
                               God's  infinite  love,  -  the
                               laying   forth  of   all   the
                               treasure  of  his  wisdom  and

Q. 3. Who is this you call his own Son?
The   second  person  of  the  John  1:  14; Rom. 1: 3;  Gal.
Trinity, coeternal and of the  4: 4; 1 John 1: 1.
one Deity with his Father.

Q.  4. How did God send him?
A.  By causing him to be made  Isa.  1.  6; John 1: 14;  Luke
flesh  of a pure virgin,  and  1:  35; Phil. 2: 8; 1 Tim.  3:
to  dwell among us,  that  he  16.
might be obedient unto death,
the death of the cross.

Chap. 10. - Of the Person of Jesus Christ.

Q. 1. What does the Scripture teach us of Jesus Christ?
Chiefly two things             1.     Though    our   Saviour
first, his person, or what he    Christ  be one God with  his
is  in himself; secondly, his    Father, he is not one person
offices, or what he  is  unto    with him.
us.                            2.   Jesus  Christ is God  and
                                 man in one, - not a God and a
                                 man; God incarnate, - not  a
                                 man deified.
                               3.   The  essential properties
                                 of  either nature remain  in
                                 his person theirs still, not
                                 communicated unto the other;
                                 as   of  the  Deity  to   be
                                 eternal, everywhere; of  the
                                 humanity to be born and die.
                               4.   Whatever may be  said  of
                                 either nature may be said of
                                 the whole person; so God may
                                 be  said to die, but not the
                                 Godhead; the man Christ to be
                                 everywhere,  but   not   his
                                 humanity; for his one person
                                 is all this.
                               5.   The monstrous figment  of
                                 transubstantiation,       or
                                 Christ's  corporeal presence
                                 in   the  sacrament,   fully
                                 overthrows   our   Saviour's
                                 human nature, and makes him a
                                 mere shadow.
                               6.    All  natural  properties
                                 are  double in Christ, -  as
                                 will,  &c., still  distinct;
                                 all personal, as subsistence,

Q. 2. What does it teach of his person?
That  he  is truly  God,  and  John  1:  14; Heb. 2: 14,  15;
perfect man, partaker of  the  Eph.  4: 5; 1 Tim 2: 5; 1 John
natures of God and man in one  1: 1.
person, between whom he is  a

Q. 3. How prove you Jesus Christ to be truly God?
Divers  ways;  first, by places of Scripture, speaking of the  great
    God  Jehovah in the Old Testament, applied to our Saviour in the
    New;  as,  Numb. 21: 5, 6, in 1 Cor. 10: 9; Ps. 102:  25-27,  in
    Heb.  1:10;  Isa.  6: 2-4, in John 12: 40,41; Isa.  8:13,14,  in
    Luke  2: 34, Rom. 9: 33; Isa. 40: 3, 4, in John 1: 23; Isa.  45:
    22,  23,  in Rom. 14: 11, Phil. 2: 10, 11; Mal. 3: 1,  in  Matt.
    11: 10.
Secondly, By the works of the Deity ascribed unto him; as, first, of
    creation,  John  1:  3; 1 Cor. 8: 6; Heb.  1:  2;  secondly,  of
    preservation  in  providence, Heb. 1: 3; John  5:  17;  thirdly,
Thirdly, By the essential attributes of God being ascribed unto him;
    as,  first,  immensity, Matt. 28: 20; John 14: 23; Eph.  3:  17;
    secondly,  eternity, John 1: 1; Rev. 1: 11; Mic. 5: 2;  thirdly,
    immutability,  Heb. 1: 11, 12; fourthly, omniscience,  John  21:
    17;  Rev. 2: 23; fifthly, majesty and glory equal to his Father,
    John 5: 23; Rev. 5: 13; Phil. 1: 2, 2: 6, 9, 10.
Fourthly,  By the names given unto him; as, first, of God expressly,
    John  1: 1, 20: 28; Acts 20: 28; Rom. 9: 5; Phil. 2: 6; Heb.  1:
    8;  1  Tim. 3: 16; secondly, of the Son of God, John 1: 18; Rom.
    8: 3, &c.

Q. 4. Was it necessary that our Redeemer should be God?
Yes; that he might be able to  Isa  43:  25, 53: 6;  Dan.  9:
save to the uttermost, and to  17, 19.
satisfy  the  wrath  of   his
Father,   which  no  creature
could perform.

Q. 5. How prove you that he was a perfect man?
First, By the prophecies that went Gen. 2: 15, 18: 18.
before, that so he should be.
Secondly, By the relation of their Matt.  1: 1; Rom. 1:  4;  Gal.
accomplishment.                4: 4.
Thirdly,    By   the   Scriptures  
assigning to him those things
which  are  required   to   a
perfect man; as,
        first, a body,             Luke  24: 39; Heb. 2: 17,  10:
                               5; 1 John 1: 1;
        secondly, a soul,          Matt. 26: 38; Mark 14: 34;
             and therein,               Matt. 26: 39;
               first, a will,
          secondly, affections,    Mark 3: 5; Luke 10: 21;
          thirdly, endowments,     Luke 2: 52.
Fourthly, General infirmities  of  Matt.  4: 2; John 4:  6;  Heb.
nature.                        2: 18.

Q. 6. Wherefore was our Redeemer to be man?
That  the  nature  which  had  Heb. 2: 10-17.
offended  might  suffer,  and
make satisfaction, and so  he
might be every way a fit  and
sufficient Saviour for men.

Chap. 11. - Of the Offices of Christ; and, First, of His Kingly.

Q. 1. How many are the offices of Jesus Christ?
Three; first, of a King;       Ps. 2: 6.
secondly, of Priest;           Ps. 110: 4.
                               In   the  exercise  of   these
                               offices,  Christ is  also  the
                               sole   head,   husband,    God
                               firstborn of the church.
                               Papal  usurpation  upon  these
                               offices  of  Christ  manifests
                               the  pope  to be  the  Man  of
thirdly, of Prophet.           Deut. 18: 15.

Q. 2. Hath he these offices peculiar by nature?
No; he only received them for  Ps.  110: l; Acts 2:  36,  10:
the   present   dispensation,  42;  1 Cor. 11: 3, 15: 27, 28;
until  the work of redemption  Phil.  2: 9; Heb. 3: 2, 6,  2:
be perfected.                  7-9.

Q. 3. Wherein does the kingly office of Christ consist?
In  a  two-fold power; first,  Ps. 110: 3-7.
his  power of ruling  in  and
over  his  church;  secondly,
his  power  of  subduing  his

Q. 4. What is his ruling power in and over his people?
That supreme authority which,  Christ's  subjects   are   all
for  their everlasting  good,  born    rebels,    and     are
he    useth   towards   them,  stubborn,  until he make  them
whereof  in general there  be  obedient   by  his  Word   and
two acts;                      spirit.
                               Christ  has not delegated  his
                               kingly   power  of  law-making
                               for  his  church to  any  here
first,      internal      and  Isa.  53: 12, 59: 20, 21, with
spiritual,    in   converting  Heb. 8: 10-12; Isa. 61: 1,  2;
their  souls unto him, making  John  1:  16, 12: 32; Mark  1:
them  unto himself a willing,  15;  Matt. 28: 20; 2 Cor.  10:
obedient, persevering people;  4, 5.
secondly,     eternal     and  Matt.  16: 19; 1 Cor. 12:  28;
ecclesiastical,   in   giving  Eph.  4: 8-14; 2 Tim.  3:  16,
perfect  laws and  rules  for  17; Rev. 22: 18, 19.
their government, as gathered
into   holy  societies  under

Q. 5. How many are the acts of his kingly power towards his enemies?
Two also                       
first,   internal,   by   the  Ps.  110; John 6: 46,  8:  59,
mighty  working of his  Word,  9:  41, 12: 40; 2 Cor. 10:  4-
and  the  spirit  of  bondage  6; 1 Cor. 5: 6; 1 Tim. 1: 20.
upon       their      hearts,  The    end   of   Christ    in
convincing,          amazing,  exercising  his  kingly  power
terrifying their consciences,  over   his  enemies,  is   the
hardening  their spirits  for  glory  of the gospel  and  the
ruin;                          good of his people.
Secondly,    external,     in  Mark  16:  16;  Luke  19:  27;
judgements   and   vengeance,  Acts 13: 11; Rev. 17: 14.
which  ofttimes he  beginneth
in   this   life,  and   will
continue unto eternity.

Chap. 12. - Of Christ's Priestly Office.

Q.  1.  By  what means did Jesus Christ undertake the office  of  an
eternal priest?
By  the  decree,  ordination,  Ps.  110: 4; Heb. 5:  5,6,  7:
and will of God his Father,    17,18.
whereunto     he      yielded  Isa. 50: 4-6; Heb. 10: 5-10.
voluntary obedience;
so that concerning this there  Ps.  2:  7,  8;  Isa.  53:  8,
was  a  compact and  covenant  10-12;  Phil. 2:  7,  9;  Heb.
between them.                  12: 2; John 17: 2, 4.

Q. 2. Wherein does his execration of this office consist?
In  bringing his people  unto  Heb. 2: 10, 4: 16, 7: 25.

Q. 3. What are the parts of it?
First, oblation;               Heb. 9: 14.
secondly, intercession.        Heb. 7: 25.
                               Against    both   these    the
                               Papists     are    exceedingly
                               blasphemous; against the  one,
                               by   making   their   mass   a
                               sacrifice  for  sins,  -   the
                               other,    by   making   saints
                               mediators of intercession.

Q. 4. What is the oblation of Christ?
The  offering up  of  himself  Isa.  53: 10,12; John  3:  16,
upon  the altar of the cross,  11:   51,  17:  19;  Heb.   9:
an      holy     propitiatory  13,14.
sacrifice for the sins of all
the   elect  throughout   the
as  also, the presentation of  Heb. 9: 24.
himself  for  us  in  heaven,
sprinkled with the  blood  of
the covenant.

Q. 5. Whereby does this oblation do good unto us?
Divers ways;                   Eph 2: 14, 15.
first,  in  that it satisfied
the justice of God;
secondly, it redeemed us from
the  power of sin, death, and
third]y, it ratified the  new
covenant of grace;
fourthly, it procured for  us
grace    here,   and    glory
by  all which means the peace
and   reconciliation  between
God and us is wrought.

Q.  6. How did the oblation of Christ satisfy God's justice for  our
In  that  for us he underwent  Isa.   53:  4-6;  John  10:11;
the  punishment  due  to  our  Rom.  3: 25, 26, 4: 25; 1 Cor.
sin.                           15:  3; 2 Cor. 5: 21; Eph.  5:
                               2; 1 Pet. 2: 24.
                               Christ's            undergoing
                               punishment for us was,
                               1  first, typified by the  old
                               2  secondly, foretold  in  the
                               first promise;
                               3  thirdly,  made  lawful  and
                               valid  in itself, - first,  by
                               God's    determination,    the
                               supreme   lawgiver;  secondly,
                               his  own  voluntary undergoing
                               it;  thirdly, by a  relaxation
                               of  the  law in regard of  the
                               subject punished; -
                               4  fourthly, beneficial to us,
                               because  united  to  us;   as,
                               first,   our  head;  secondly,
                               our  elder  brother;  thirdly,
                               our    sponsor   or    surety;
                               fourthly,     our     husband;
                               fifthly,    our    God,     or
                               Redeemer, &c.

Q. 7. What was that punishment?
A.  The  wrath  of  God,  the  Gen.  2: 17; Deut. 27:  15-26;
curse  of the law, the  pains  Isa.  59: 2; Rom. 5:  12;  Eph
of  hell, due to sinners,  in  2: 3; John 3: 36; Heb. 2: 14.
body and soul.                 No  change  in all these,  but
                               what  necessarily follows  the
                               charge    of    the    persons

Q. 8. Did Christ undergo all these?
Yes;   in  respect   of   the  Matt.  26:  28; Mark  14:  33,
greatness and extremity,  not  34;  15:  34; Gal. 3: 13;  Eph
the  eternity and continuance  2:  16; Col. 1: 20; Heb. 5: 7;
of  those pains; for  it  was  Ps. 18: 5.
impossible   he   should   be  The    death    that    Christ
holden of death.               underwent was eternal  in  its
                               own  nature  and  tendence,  -
                               not  so to him, because of his
                               holiness,   power,   and   the
                               unity of his person.

9. How could the punishment of one satisfy for the offence of all?
In that he was not a mere man  Rom.  5: 9; Heb. 9: 26; 1 Pet.
only,   but  God   also,   of  3: 18.
infinitely  more  value  than  He  suffered not as  God,  but
all those who had offended.    he suffered who was God.

Q. 10. How did the oblation of Christ redeem from death and hell?
First, by paying a ransom  to  Matt.  20:  28;  John  6:  51;
God,  the judge and lawgiver,  Mark  10:  45; Rom. 3:  25;  1
who had condemned us;          Cor.  6:  20; Gal. 3: 13;  Eph
                               1:  7;  1 Tim. 2: 6; Heb.  10:
                               We  are  freed from the  anger
                               of    God,    by   a   perfect
                               rendering  to the  full  value
                               of  what he required,  -  from
                               the   power   of   Satan,   by
                               absolute   conquest   on   our
secondly,  by overcoming  and  John  5: 24; Col. 2: 13-15;  1
spoiling  Satan,  death,  and  Thess.  1: 10; Heb. 2:  14;  1
the   powers  of  hell,  that  Pet. 1: 18, 19.
detained us captives.

Q. 11. What was the ransom that Christ paid for us?
His own precious blood.        Acts 20: 28; 1 Pet. 1: 19.

Q. 12. How was the new covenant ratified in his blood?
By being accompanied with his  Gen.  22: 18; Heb. 9:  16,  8:
death; for that, as all other  10-12.
testaments,   was    to    be  The  new  covenant is Christ's
ratified by the death of  the  legacy, in his last will  unto
testator.                      his   people,  -  the  eternal
                               inheritance  of  glory   being
                               conveyed thereby.

Q. 13. What is this new covenant?
The gracious, free, immutable  Gen.  3:  15; Jer. 31:  31-34,
promise of God, made unto all  32: 40; Heb. 8: 10-12.
his elect fallen in Adam,
to give them Jesus Christ,     Gal. 3: 8, 16; Gen. 12: 3.
and  in  him  mercy,  pardon,  Rom. 8: 32; Eph. 1: 3, 4.
grace, and glory,
with   a  re-stipulation   of  Mark  16: 16; John 1: 12,  10:
faith  from  them  unto  this  27, 28.
promise, and new obedience.

Q. 14. How did Christ procure for us grace, faith, and glory?
By  the  way of purchase  and  Isa.  53: 11, 12; John 17:  2;
merit;   for  the  death   of  Acts  20: 28; Rom. 5: 17,  18;
Christ deservedly procured of  Eph.  2:  15, 16, 1: 4;  Phil.
God  that he should bless  us  1:  29; Tit. 2: 14; Rev. 1: 5,
with  all spiritual blessings  6.
needful  for our coming  unto  The   death   of  Christ   was
him.                           satisfactory  in  respect   of
                               the  strict  justice  of  God,
                               meritorious in respect of  the
                               covenant between him  and  his
                               All   these  holy  truths  are
                               directly   denied    by    the
                               blasphemous Socinians; and  by
                               the    Papists,   with   their
                               merits,  masses, penance,  and
                               purgatory,    by   consequent,

Q. 15. What is the intercession of Christ?
His  continual soliciting  of  Ps. 2: 8; Rom. 8: 34; Heb.  7:
God on our behalf, begun here  25,  9: 24, 10: 19-21; 1  John
in fervent prayers, continued  2: 1, 2; John 17.
in heaven by appearing as our  To     make     saints     our
advocate  at  the  throne  of  intercessors, is  to  renounce
grace.                         Jesus  Christ  from  being   a
                               sufficient Saviour.

Chap. 13. - Of Christ's Prophetical Office.

Q. 1. Wherein does the prophetical office of Christ consist?
In  his embassage from God to  Matt.  5; John 1: 18,  3:  32,
man, revealing from the bosom  9,  14,  14: 5, 6, 17: 8,  18:
of   his  Father  the   whole  37.
mystery of godliness, the way  Christ   differed   from   all
and  truth  whereby  we  must  other prophets; first, in  his
come unto God.                 sending,       which       was
                               immediately from the bosom  of
                               his   Father;  secondly,   his
                               assistance,  which   was   the
                               fulness    of   the    Spirit;
                               thirdly,    his   manner    of
                               teaching, - with authority.

Q. 2. Mow does he exercise this office towards us?
By  making  known  the  whole  Deut.  18:  18;  Isa.  42:  6;
doctrine of truth unto us  in  Heb. 3: 1.
a    saving   and   spiritual  To    accuse   his   Word   of
manner.                        imperfection, in  doctrine  or
                               discipline, is to deny  him  a
                               perfect  prophet, or  to  have
                               borne witness unto all truth.

Q. 3. By what means does he perform all this?
Divers; as,                    
first,     internally     and  Jer.  31: 31-34; 2 Cor. 3:  3;
effectually,  by  his  Spirit  1 Thess. 4: 9; Heb. 8: 10.
writing   his  law   in   our
secondly,    outwardly    and  John  20: 31; 1 Cor.  12:  28;
instrumentally, by  the  Word  Eph. 4: 8-13; 2 Pet. 1:21.

Chap. 14. - Of the Two-fold Estate of Christ.

Q.  1.  In  what  estate  or condition does  Christ  exercise  these
In  a two-fold estate; first,  Phil. 2: 8-10.
of  humiliation or abasement;  The   humiliation  of   Christ
secondly,  of  exaltation  or  shows us what we must here  do
glory.                         and  suffer,  his  exaltation,
                               what we may hope for.
                               The   first  of  these   holds
                               forth  his mighty love to  us;
                               the other his mighty power  in
                               The  only way to heaven is  by
                               the cross.

Q. 2. Wherein consisteth the state of Christ's humiliation?
In three things;               
first, in his incarnation, or  Luke  1: 35; John 1: 14;  Rom.
being born of woman;           1:  3;  Gal. 4: 4; Heb. 2:  9,
secondly, this obedience,  or  Matt.  3: 15, 5: 17;  Luke  2:
fulfilling  the  whole   law,  21;  John 8: 46; 2 Cor. 5: 21;
moral and ceremonial;          1 Pet. 1: 19; 1 John 3: 5.
thirdly,  in his passion,  or  Isa.  53: 6; Heb. 2: 9; 1 Pet.
enduring    all   sorts    of  2: 21.
miseries, even death itself.

Q. 3. Wherein consists his exaltation?
In,  first, his resurrection;  Matt.  28: 18; Rom. 1:  4,  6:
secondly, ascension; thirdly,  4;  Eph. 4: 9; Phil. 2: 9, 10;
sitting at the right hand  of  1 Tim. 3: 16.
God;  -  by all which he  was
declared to be the Son of God
with power.

Chap.  15. - Of the Persons to whom the Benefits of Christ's Offices
do belong.

Q. 1. Unto whom do the saving benefits of what Christ performeth, in
the execution of his offices, belong?
Only to his elect.             John  17: 9; Isa. 63: 9;  Heb.
                               3: 6, 10: 21.
                               Christ  giveth  life  to   all
                               that  world for whom  he  gave
                               his life.
                               None  that  he died for  shall
                               ever die.
                               To  say  that Christ died  for
                               every  man universally, is  to
                               affirm  that  he did  no  more
                               for   the   elect   than   the
                               reprobates,  - for  them  that
                               are  saved than for them. that
                               are   damned;  which  is   the
                               Arminian blasphemy.

Q. 2. Died he for no other?
None,   in  respect  of   his  Acts   20:  28;  Matt.  20:28,
Father's eternal purpose, and  26:28;  Heb. 9: 28;  John  11:
his own intention of removing  51,52; Isa. 53:12; John  3:l6,
wrath    from    them,    and  10:11-13,15; Eph.  5:25;  Rom.
procuring grace and glory for  8:  32,  34; Gal. 3: 13;  John
them.                          6:  37, 39; Rom. 4: 25; 2 Cor.
                               5: 19, 20.

Q. 3. What shall become of them for whom Christ died not?
Everlasting   torments    for  Mark  16:  16;  John  3:   36;
their sins; their portion  in  Matt. 25: 41; Acts 1: 25.
their own place.

Q. 4. For whom does he make intercession?
Only   for  those  who   from  John 17; Heb. 7: 24, 25.
eternity  were given  him  by
his Father.

Chap. 16. - Of the Church.

Q.  1. How are the elect called, in respect of their obedience  unto
Christ, and union with him?
His church.                    Acts 20: 28; Eph. 5: 32.

Q. 2. What is the church of Christ?
The  whole company  of  God's  The  elect  angels  belong  to
elect,                         this church.
                               No  distance of time or  place
                               breaks   the  unity  of   this
                               church:   heaven  and   earth,
                               from  the  beginning  of   the
                               world   unto  the   end,   are
                               comprised in it.
                               No  mention  in  Scripture  of
                               any church in purgatory.
                               This  is  the catholic church;
                               -  though that term be not  to
                               be  found in the Word in  this
                               sense,  the  thing  itself  is
                               The   pope,  challenging  unto
                               himself the title of the  head
                               of  the  catholic  church,  is
                               blasphemously       rebellious
                               against Jesus Christ.
called                         Acts  2:  47;  1 Tim.  5:  21;
                               Heb. 12: 22-24.
of God,                        Rom.  1: 5, 6, 9:11,24; 1 Cor.
                               4: 15; 2 Tim. 1: 9.
by the Word and Spirit,        Acts  16:  14; John  3:  8;  1
                               Cor.  4:  15;  1 Pet.  1:  23;
                               Heb. 8: 10.
out    of    their    natural  Eph.  2:  11-13; Col.  1:  13;
condition, to the dignity  of  Heb. 2: 14, 15; 1 Pet. 2: 9.
his children,
and  united unto Christ their  John 17: 21; Eph. 2: 18-22.
head,  by faith, in the  bond
of the Spirit.

Q. 3. Is this whole church always in the same state?
No; one part of it is militant, the other triumphant.

Q. 4. What is the church militant?
That  portion of God's  elect  Eph.  6: 11, 12; Heb. 11:  13,
which,  in  their generation,  14, 12: 1, 4.
cleaveth   unto   Christ   by
faith,  and fighteth  against
the world, flesh, and devil.

Q5. What is the church triumphant?
That  portion of God's people  Eph.  5:  27; Rev. 3: 21,  14:
who,   having  fought   their  13.
fight and kept the faith, are
now  in heaven, resting  from
their labours.

Q. 6. Are not the church of the Jews before the birth of Christ, and
the church of the Christians since, two churches?
No;  essentially they are but  Eph.  2: 11-16; 1 Cor. 10:  3;
one,  differing only in  some  Gal.  4: 26, 27; Heb. 11:  16,
outward administrations.       26, 40.
                               This  is that ark out of which
                               whosoever   is  shall   surely

Q.  7. Can this church be wholly overthrown on the earth?
No;  unless the decree of God  Matt.   16:18,   28:20;   John
may   be  changed,  and   the  14:16; John 17; 1 Tim. 3:  15;
promise of Christ fail.        2 Tim. 2: 19.

Chap. 17. - Of Faith.

Q.  1.  By what means do we become actual members of this church  of
By a lively justifying faith,  Acts  2:47, 13:48; Heb.  11:6,
whereby  we  are united  unto  12:22,23,  4:2;  Rom.   5:1,2;
Christ, the head thereof.      Eph. 2:13,14.
                               Of  this faith the Holy Spirit
                               is  the  efficient cause,  the
                               Word, the instrumental; -  the
                               Law       indirectly,       by
                               discovering  our  misery;  the
                               Gospel     immediately,     by
                               holding forth a Saviour.

Q. 2. What is a justifying faith?
A  gracious resting upon  the  1  Tim.  1:  16; Job  13:  15,
free promises of God in Jesus  19:25; Rom. 4: 5.
Christ for mercy,              Faith      is      in      the
                               understanding, in  respect  of
                               its  being and subsistence,  -
                               in  the  will  and  heart,  in
                               respect   of   its   effectual
with  a  firm  persuasion  of  Heb.   4:16;  Rom.  8:  38,39;
heart   that   God    is    a  Gal. 2:20; 2 Cor. 5: 20,21.
reconciled Father unto us  in
the Son of his love.

Q. 3. Have all this faith?
None but the elect of God.     Tit.  1: l; John 10: 26; Matt.
                               13:  11; Acts 13: 48; Rom.  8:

Q4. Do not, then, others believe that make profession?
Yes;  with, first, historical  James 2: 19.
faith,  or a persuasion  that
the  things  written  in  the
Word are true;
secondly,  temporary   faith,  Matt.  13:  20;  Mark  6:  20;
which  has  some joy  of  the  John 2: 23,24; Acts 8: 13.
affections,  upon unspiritual
grounds,   in   the    things

Chap. 18. - Of our Vocation, or God's Calling us.

Q. 1. How come we to have this saving faith?
It is freely bestowed upon us  John  6: 29,44; Eph. 2: 8,  9;
and  wrought  in  us  by  the  Phil. 1: 29; 2 Thess. 1: 11.
Spirit   of   God,   in   our
vocation or calling.

Q2. What is our vocation, or this calling of God?
The  free,  gracious  act  of  Col.   1:12,13;  2  Tim.  1:9;
Almighty   God,  whereby   in  Deut.   30:6;   Ezek.   36:26;
Jesus  Christ he calleth  and  Matt.  11:25, 26;  John  1:13,
translateth us from the state  3:3,  8;  Eph. 1: 19; Col.  2:
of  nature,  sin, wrath,  and  12;  1 Cor. 4: 7; James 1: 18;
corruption, into the state of  2 Pet. 2: 20; Acts 16: 14.
grace  and union with Christ,  Our  effectual calling is  the
by   the   mighty,  effectual  first     effect    of     our
working of his Spirit in  the  everlasting election.
preaching of the Word.         We  have no actual interest in
                               nor  right unto Christ,  until
                               we are thus called.

Q.  3.  What do we ourselves perform in this change, or work of  our
Nothing at all, being  merely  Matt.  7: 18, 10: 20; John  1:
wrought  upon  by  the   free  13, 15:5; 1 Cor. 12:3, 2:5;  2
grace and Spirit of God, when  Cor.   3:5;  Eph  2:1,8;  Rom.
in   ourselves  we  have   no  8:26; Phil. 1:6.
ability to any thing that  is  They  who  so  boast  of   the
spiritually good.              strength of free-will  in  the
                               work  of  our  conversion  are
                               themselves an example what  it
                               is  being given up to so  vile
                               an  error, - destitute of  the
                               grace of God.

Q. 4. Does God thus call all and every one?
All  within the pale  of  the  Matt. 22: 14; Rom. 8: 30.
church  are outwardly  called
by the Word, none effectually
but the elect.

Chap. 19. - Of Justification.

Q.  1.  Are we accounted righteous and saved for our faith, when  we
are thus freely called?
No,   but   merely   by   the  Isa.  43:  25;  Rom.  3:23-26,
imputation       of       the  4:5.
righteousness   of    Christ,  Legal      and     evangelical
apprehended  and  applied  by  justification  differ;  first,
faith;  for which  alone  the  on  the part of the persons to
Lord  accepts us as holy  and  be   justified,  -   the   one
righteous.                     requiring  a  person   legally
                               and  perfectly  righteous,   -
                               the  other a believing sinner;
                               secondly, on the part of  God,
                               who  in  the one is a  severe,
                               righteous  judge,  -  in   the
                               other,  a merciful, reconciled
                               Father;   thirdly,   in    the
                               sentence,  which  in  the  one
                               acquitteth,  as  having   done
                               nothing   amiss,  -   in   the
                               other,  as  having  all  amiss

Q. 2. What, then, is our justification or righteousness before God?
The  gracious,  free  act  of  Gen.  15: 6; Acts 13: 38,  39;
God,       imputing       the  Luke    18:   14;   Rom.    3:
righteousness of Christ to  a  24,26,28, 4:4-8; Gal. 2: 16.
believing  sinner,  and   for
that speaking peace unto  his
conscience, in the pardon  of
his sin,
  pronouncing him to be  just
and accepted before him.

Q. 3. Are we not, then, righteous before God by our own works?
No;  for  of themselves  they  Ps.  130:3,4, 143:2; Isa.  64:
can   neither   satisfy   his  6; Luke 17:10.
justice, fulfil his law,  nor
endure his trial.

Chap. 20. - Of Sanctification.

Q. 1. Is there nothing, then, required of us but faith only?
repentance,                    Acts  20: 21; Matt. 3: 2; Luke
                               13: 3.
and     holiness    or    new  2  Tim. 2: 19; 1 Thess. 4:  7;
obedience.                     Heb. 12: 14.

Q. 2. What is repentance?
Godly  sorrow for every known  2  Cor.  7: 9-11; Acts 2:  37;
sin committed against God,     Ps. 51: 17.
                               Repentance  includeth,  first,
                               alteration of the mind into  a
                               hatred  of sin, before  loved;
                               secondly,   sorrow   of    the
                               affections  for sin committed;
                               thirdly,   change    of    the
                               actions arising from both.
                               Repentance  is  either  legal,
                               servile, and terrifying,  from
                               the  spirit  of  bondage;   or
                               evangelical,    filial,    and
                               comforting,  from  the  spirit
                               of  free  grace  and  liberty,
                               which only is available.
with  a firm purpose of heart  Ps.  34:  14; Isa. 1: 16,  17;
to  cleave unto him  for  the  Ezek. 18:27,28; Acts 14: 15.
in  the  killing of sin,  the  Eph.  4:  21-24; Rom. 6:12,13,
quickening of all graces,  to  18,19,  8:l;  2  Cor.  5:  17;
walk before him in newness of  Gal. 6: 15.

Q. 3. Can we do this of ourselves?
No;  it is a special gift and  Lev.  20:8; Deut. 30:6;  Ezek.
grace   of   God,  which   he  11:19,20;  2 Tim.  2:25;  Acts
bestoweth on whom he pleaseth  11:18.

Q.  4.  Wherein  does the being of true repentance consist,  without
which it is not acceptable?
In  its performance according  Ps.  51; 1 John 2:1,2; 2  Cor.
to   the  Gospel  rule,  with  7:10,11;   Acts  2:38;   Matt.
faith  and  assured  hope  of  26:75.
divine mercy.                  Every     part    of    Popish
                               repentance       -       viz.,
                               contrition,  confession,   and
                               satisfaction  - was  performed
                               by Judas.

Q. 5. What is that holiness which is required of us?
That    universal,    sincere  Ps.  119:9;  1  Sam.  15:  22;
obedience  to the whole  will  John  14: 15; Rom. 6: 19; Heb.
of God,                        12: 14; Tit. 2: 12; 2 Pet.  1:
                               5-7; Isa. 1:16,17.
                               All   faith   and  profession,
                               without   this  holiness,   is
                               vain and of no effect.
                               True  faith  can  no  more  be
                               without  true  holiness   than
                               true fire without heat.
in  our hearts, minds, wills,  l  Chron.  28:9; Deut.  6:  5;
and actions,                   Matt. 22:37.
whereby   we  are   in   some  Rom.  8:  29;  1 Cor.  11:  l;
measure  made conformable  to  Eph.  2:21; Col. 3:1-3; 2 Tim.
Christ, our head.              2:11, 12.

Q6. Is this holiness or obedience in us perfect?
Yes,  in  respect of all  the  2  Kings  20:  3;  Job  1:  l;
parts of it,                   Matt.  5:  48; Luke  1:  6;  2
                               Cor.  7:  l; Eph. 4: 24;  Tit.
                               2: 12.
                               Merit     of     works      in
                               unprofitable servants, no  way
                               able  to do their duty,  is  a
                               Popish miracle.
but  not  in respect  of  the  Isa  64: 6; Ps. 130: 3;  Exod.
degrees  wherein God requires  28:38; Phil. 3:12.

Q. 7. Will God accept of that obedience which falls so short of what
he requireth?
Yes,  from them whose persons  Rom.  12: l; Phil. 4: 18; Heb.
he  accepteth and  justifieth  13:  16;  1 John 3:  22;  Eph.
freely in Jesus Christ.        1:6.
                               In   Christ  are  our  persons
                               accepted freely, and  for  him
                               our obedience.

Q. 8. What are the parts of this holiness?
Internal,  in the  quickening  Heb.  9:  14; Eph. 3: 16,  17;
of  all  graces, purging  act  Rom. 2:29, 6:12.
and  external, in fervent and  Matt.  5: 20; Rom. 8:1,2;  Eph
frequent  prayers, alms,  and  4: 22, 23; Tit. 2:12.
all manner of righteousness.   Particular    precepts     are

Q.  9.  May not others perform these duties acceptably, as  well  as
those that believe?
No; all their performances in  Prov.  15:8; John  9:31;  Tit.
this  kind are but abominable  1:15; Heb. 11:6.
sins before the Lord.          The     best     duties     of
                               unbelievers  are   but   white

Chap. 21. - Of the Privileges of Believers.

Q. 1. What are the privileges of those that thus believe and repent?
First,  union with Christ; secondly, adoption of children;  thirdly,
Christian liberty; fourthly, a spiritual, holy right to the seals of
the  new  covenant;  fifthly, communion with  all  saints;  sixthly,
resurrection of the body unto life eternal.

Q. 2. What is our union with Christ?
An       holy,      spiritual  1     Cor.     12:12;     John
conjunction unto him,          15:l,2,5-7, 17:23.
                               By   virtue  of  this   union,
                               Christ   suffereth   in    our
                               afflictions; and  we  fill  up
                               in  our  bodies what remaineth
                               as his.
                               From  Christ, as head  of  the
                               church,   we  have   spiritual
                               life,  sense, and  motion,  or
                               growth in grace; secondly,  as
                               the  husband  of  the  church,
                               love  and redemption; thirdly,
                               as   the  foundation  thereof,
                               stability and perseverance.
as our head,                   Eph. 4:15, 5:23; Col. 1:18.
husband,                       2  Cor.  11:2; Eph. 5:  25-27;
                               Rev. 21:9.
and foundation,                Matt.  16:18; Eph. 2:20-22;  1
                               Pet. 2:4-7.
whereby we are made partakers  Rom.  8:9,11; Gal. 4:6;  Phil.
of the same Spirit with him,   1:19.
and  derive  all good  things  John 1:12,16; Eph. 1:3.
from him.

Q. 3. What is our adoption?
Our  gracious reception  into  John   1:  12;  Rom.  8:15,17;
the  family  of God,  as  his  Gal. 4:5; Eph. 1:5.
children,  and co-heirs  with  

Q. 4. How come we to know this?
By  the  especial working  of  Rom.  8:15,17;  Eph.  4:30;  1
the   Holy  Spirit   in   our  John  3:l; Rom. 8:19,23;  Tit.
hearts, sealing unto  us  the  2:13.
promises of God, and  raising  This is that great honour  and
up  our  souls to an  assured  dignity  of  believers,  which
expectation  of the  promised  exalts  them  to  a  despising
inheritance.                   all earthly thrones.

Q. 5. What is our Christian liberty?
An holy and spiritual freedom  Gal. 5: 1.
                               Our     liberty     is     our
                               inheritance here below,  which
                               we   ought  to  contend   for,
                               against all opposers.
from the slavery of sin,       John    8:   32,34,36;    Rom.
                               6:17,18; Isa. 61:1; 1 John  1:
                               7; 2 Cor. 5: 21.
the   bondage  of  death  and  Rom.  8:15; Heb. 2:15; 1  Cor.
hell,                          15:55,57.
the curse of the law,          Gal.  3:13; Eph. 2:15,16; Gal.
                               4:5; Rom. 8:1.
Jewish ceremonies,             Acts 15:10,11; Gal. 3,4,5.
and thraldom of conscience,    2  Cor. 1:24; 1 Cor. 7: 23;  1
                               Pet. 2: 16.
purchased  for  us  by  Jesus  1 Cor. 2:12.
Christ, and revealed to us by
the Holy Spirit.

Q. 6. Are we, then, wholly freed from the moral law?
Yes, as a covenant, or as  it  Jer.  31:  31-33; Rom.  7:1-3,
has  any thing in it bringing  6:14;  Gal. 3:19,24;  Rom.  8:
into bondage, - as the curse,  2; Gal. 5: 18.
power,  dominion,  and  rigid  Nothing makes men condemn  the
exaction of obedience;         law  as a rule, but hatred  of
                               that  universal holiness which
                               it does require.
but  not  as it is a rule  of  Matt.   5:   17;  Rom.   3:31,
life and holiness.             7:13,22,25.

Q.  7.  Are  we not freed by Christ from the magistrate's power  and
human authority?
No;  being ordained  of  God,  Rom.  13:1-4; 1 Tim. 2:1,2;  1
and  commanding for  him,  we  Pet. 2:13-15.
owe     them    act    lawful  Rule  and  authority  are   as
obedience.                     necessary  for  human  society
                               as  fire  and  water  for  our

Chap. 22. - Of the Sacraments of the New Covenant in particular, - a
holy right whereunto is the Fourth Privilege of Believers.

Q. 1. What are the seals of the New Testament?
Sacraments   instituted    of  Mark  16:16;  John  3:5;  Acts
Christ  to  be visible  seats  2:38,  22:16;  Rom.  4:11;   1
and  pledges, whereby God  in  Cor. 10:2-4, 11:26-29.
him  confirmeth the  promises
of   the   covenant  to   all
believers, re-stipulating  of
them  growth  in  faith   and

Q. 2. How does God by these sacraments bestow grace upon us?
Not  by  any  real  essential  Heb.  4:2;  1  Cor.  10;  Rom.
conveying of spiritual  grace  4:11,  1:17; Mark 16:16;  Eph.
by  corporeal means,  but  by  5: 26.
the     way    of    promise,  This  is  one of the  greatest
obsignation,  and   covenant,  mysteries  of the Roman  magic
confirming the grace  wrought  and  juggling  that  corporeal
in us by the Word and Spirit.  elements should have  a  power
                               to  forgive  sins, and  confer
                               spiritual grace.

Q. 3. How do our sacraments differ from the sacraments of the Jews?
Accidentally only, in  things  1  Cor.  10:1,2, 3, &c.;  John
concerning the outward matter  6:35; 1 Cor. 5: 7; Phil.  3:3;
and  form,  as their  number,  Col. 2:11.
quality,     clearness     of
signification, and the  like,
-  not  essentially,  in  the
things  signified,  or  grace

Chap. 23. - Of Baptism.

Q. 1. Which are these sacraments?
Baptism and the Lord's supper.

Q. 2. What is baptism?
An  holy action, appointed of  Matt. 28:19; Mark 16:15,16.
Christ,     whereby     being  Not    the   want,   but   the
sprinkled with water  in  the  contempt  of  this  sacrament,
name of the whole Trinity, by  is damnable.
a   lawful  minister  of  the  It  is hard to say whether the
church,                        error    of    the    Papists,
                               requiring      baptism      of
                               absolute,        indispensable
                               necessity to the salvation  of
                               every  infant, or that of  the
                               Anabaptists,  debarring   them
                               from  it  altogether,  be  the
                               most uncharitable.
we   are  admitted  into  the  Acts 2:41, 8:37.
family of God,
and  have the benefits of the  Acts  2:38,39; John 3:5;  Rom.
blood   of  Christ  confirmed  6:3-5; 1 Cor. 12: 13.
unto us.                       

Q. 3. To whom does this sacrament belong?
Unto  all to whom the promise  Acts   2:39;  Gen.   17:11,12;
of the covenant is made; that  Acts  16:15; Rom.  4:10,11;  1
is,  to  believers,  and   to  Cor. 7:14.
their seed.

Q.  4.  How can baptism seal the pardon of all sins to us,  all  our
personal sins following it?
Inasmuch as it is a  seal  of  Acts 2: 39; Rom. 4: 11, 12.
that   promise  which   gives
pardon of all to believers.

Chap. 24. - Of the Lord's Supper.

Q. 1. What is the Lord's supper?
An holy action instituted and  Matt. 26: 26-28; Luke 22:  14-
appointed by Christ,           20; 1 Cor. 11: 23-25.
                               Baptism  is  the sacrament  of
                               our  new  birth, this  of  our
                               farther growth in Christ.
to set forth his death,        Luke  22:19;  1 Cor.  11:  25,
and   communicate   unto   us  Mark  14:  22-24; 1  Cor.  11:
spiritually  his   body   and  24,25; John 6: 63.
blood by faith,
being  represented  by  bread  l Cor. 11: 23, 25.
and wine,
blessed  by  his  word,   and  1 Cor. 11: 24; Matt. 26: 26.
broken,   poured   out,   and  Matt. 26:26; Mark 14:22;  Luke
received of believers.         22:19.
                               No  part of Christian religion
                               was     ever     so     vilely
                               contaminated  and  abused   by
                               profane   wretches,  as   this
                               pure,  holy, plain action  and
                               institution  of  our  Saviour:
                               witness   the  Popish   horrid
                               monster                     of
                               transubstantiation, and  their
                               idolatrous mass.

Q. 2. When did Christ appoint this sacraments?
On  the night wherein he  was  1 Cor. 11: 23.
betrayed to suffer.

Q. 3. Whence is the right lose of it to be learned?
From the word, practice,  and  Whatever  is more than  these,
actions  of  our Saviour,  at  is of our own.
its institution.

Q. 4. What were the actions of our Saviour to be imitated by us?
First,  blessing the elements  Matt.  26:  26; Mark  14:  22;
by prayer; secondly, breaking  Luke 22:19,20; 1 Cor. 11:  23,
the  bread,  and pouring  out  24.
the       wine;      thirdly,
distributing  them   to   the
receivers,   sitting   in   a

Q. 5. What were the words of Christ?
First,  of command, -  "Take,  1 Cor. 11: 24-26.
eat;" secondly, of promise, -
"This  is  my body;" thirdly,
of  institution for perpetual
use, - "This do," &c.

Q. 6. Who are to be receivers of this sacrament?
Those  only have a true right  1 Cor. 11: 27-29; John 6: 63.
to  the  signs who  by  faith  Faith  in God's promise, which
have  an  holy  interest   in  it  does confirm, - union with
Christ, the thing signified.   Christ, whereof it is a  seal,
                               -  and  obedience to the right
                               use  of  the ordinance itself,
                               -    are   required   of   all
                               There  is  not any one  action
                               pertaining  to  the  spiritual
                               nature of this sacrament,  not
                               any   end  put  upon   it   by
                               Christ,   -  as,  first,   the
                               partaking  of  his  body   and
                               blood;    secondly,    setting
                               forth   his  death   for   us;
                               thirdly,  declaring   of   our
                               union with him and his, -  but
                               requires  faith,  grace,   and
                               holiness, in the receivers.

Q.  7.  Do  the  elements  remain bread and wine  still,  after  the
blessing of them?
Yes; all the spiritual change  John   6:  63;  1  Cor.  10:4,
is  wrought by the  faith  of  11:29.
the  receiver, not the  words
of  the  giver: to them  that
believe,  they are  the  body
and blood of Christ.

Chap.  25.  -  Of the Communion of Saints, - the Fifth Privilege  of

Q. 1. What is the communion of saints?
An  holy  conjunction between  Cant. 6: 9; Jer. 32: 39;  John
all God's people, wrought  by  17:  22;  1 Cor. 12:  12;  Eph
their  participation  of  the  4:3-6,13; 1 John 1:3,6,7.
same  Spirit, whereby we  are  By  virtue of this, we partake
all  made members of that one  in  all  the good and evil  of
body  whereof Christ  is  the  the  people  of God throughout
head.                          the world.

Q. 2. Of what sort is this union?
First,     spiritual      and  1  Cor.  12:12,13;  Eph  2:16,
internal, in the enjoyment of  19-22;  1  Cor. 10:  17;  John
the same Spirit and graces, -  17:   11,21,22;  John   10:16;
which  is  the union  of  the  Heb. 1: 11.
church catholic;
secondly,    external     and  l  Cor. 1:10,11; Rom. 12:5;  1
ecclesiastical, in  the  same  Cor.  12: 27,28; Eph 4: 11-13;
outward  ordinances, -  which  Phil.  2:  2; Col.  3:  15;  1
is  the  union of  particular  Pet. 3: 8.

Chap. 26. - Of Particular Churches.

Q. 1. What are particular churches?
Peculiar    assemblies     of  Acts  11:  26;  1  Cor.  4:17,
professors in one place,       11:22; 2 Cor. 1:1.
                               Every   corruption  does   not
                               presently unchurch a people.
                               Unholiness     of      fellow-
                               worshippers    defileth    not
                               God's ordinances.
under  officers  of  Christ's  Acts  20:17,28, 14:23; 2  Cor.
institution,                   8:23; Heb. 13:17.
enjoying  the  ordinances  of  l Cor. 3: 6; Rev. 2: 1-3.
and  leading lives be seeming  2  Thess. 3:5,6,11; Gal. 6:16;
their holy calling.            Phil. 3:17; 1 Thess. 2:12.

Q. 2. What are the ordinary officers of such churches?
First, pastors or doctors, to  Rom.  12: 7, 8; Eph. 4: 11;  1
teach and exhort;              Cor. 12: 28.
                               Ministers  are the bishops  of
                               the  Lord;  lord-bishops  came
                               from Rome.
secondly,  elders, to  assist  Rom. 12: 8; 1 Tim. 5: 17.
in rule and government;
thirdly, deacons, to  provide  Acts 6:2,3.
for the poor.

Q.  3.  What is required of these officers, especially the chiefest,
or ministers?
That they be faithful in  the  1 Cor. 4: 2; Acts 20:18-20.
ministry committed unto them;
sedulous  in  dispensing  the  2 Tim. 2: 15, 4: 1-5.
watching for the good of  the  Tit. 1: 13; 1 Tim. 4: 15, 16.
souls committed to them;
going   before  them  in   an  Tit.  2:  7;  1  Tim.  4:  12;
example of all godliness  and  Matt. 5: 16; Acts 24: 16.
holiness of life.

Q. 4. What is required in the people unto them?
Obedience  to  their  message  2  Cor.  5:  20; Rom.  6:  17;
and ministry;                  Heb.  13: 17; 2 Thess. 3:  14;
                               Rom. 16: 19; 2 Cor. 10: 4-6.
honour  and  love  to   their  l  Cor.  4:  l; Gal.  4:14;  1
persons;                       Tim. 5:17,18.
maintenance to them and their  Luke  10:  7; James  5:  4;  1
families.                      Tim.  5:  17, 18;  1  Cor.  9:

Chap. 27. - Of the Last Privilege of Believers, - being the Door  of
Entrance into Glory.

Q. 1. What is the resurrection of the flesh?
An act of the mighty power of  Job  19:25-27; Ps.  16:  9-11;
God's  Holy Spirit,  applying  Isa.  26:  19;  Ezek.  37:2,3;
unto   us   the   virtue   of  Dan.  12:  2; 1 Cor.  15:  16,
Christ's        resurrection,  &c; Rev. 20:12,13.
whereby, at the last day,  he  The  resurrection of the fresh
will  raise our whole  bodies  hereafter   is   a    powerful
from  the dust, to be  united  motive   to  live  after   the
again   unto  our  souls   in  Spirit here.
everlasting happiness.

Q. 2. What is the end of this whole dispensation?
The glory of God in our eternal salvation.

To Him be all glory and honour for evermore! Amen.