World English Bible: Messianic Edition Glossary

The following words used in the World English Bible: Messianic Edition (WEBME) are not very common, either because they refer to ancient weights, measures, or money, or because they are in some way unique to the Bible. If you find words in the World English Bible: Messianic Edition that you think should be added to this list, or if you have comments or suggested correctionst, please let us know. This is a draft document that is being regularly updated. For a current copy, please get the latest version here. For more information on this Bible translation project, please see the World English Bible Frequently Asked Questions.


Last updated: 29 Aug 2004

Abaddon

Hebrew for place of destruction or ruin. Rev 9:11.

abba

An affectionate term of endearment used by children to their father. Originally Aramaic before incorporation into ancient Hebrew. Mk 14:36 Gal 4:6 Ro 8:15.

alef

(Aleph)--First letter of the Hebrew alphabet.

amen

“So be it,” “it is certainly so.” From the Hebrew root for “truth.”

Andrew

One of the emissaries of Messiah (Hebrew Andrai; Aramaic Andraus; Greek and Latin Andreas).

angel

Meaning “messenger” or “envoy” (Hebrew malak; Greek anggelos; Latin angelus). Aside from it’s usual use to denote a heavenly agent God sends forth to accomplish his purposes, or to the fallen ones, it is also used for human messengers (Job 1:14 1Sam 11:3 Lu 7:24 9:52 Rev 1:20), prophets (Isa 42:19 Hag 1:13), and priests (Mal 2:7).

Annas

Annas ben Seth was high priest 6-15 C.E. and associate with high priest Joseph Caiaphas (18-36 C.E.) his son-in-law. Lu 3:2, Yo 18:13ff, Ac 4:6.

Arimathea

English for Hebrew Ramatayim (Aramaic Ramtha; Greek Harimathaia; Latin Arimathia), a town five miles north of Jerusalem from where the rich man and Sanhedrin member Joseph is identified with (Mt 27:57 Mk 15:43 Lu 23:50 Yo 19:38), whose tomb in Jerusalem was used to place Messiah following the crucifixion, and from where the resurrection of Messiah occurred.

assarion

A small Roman copper coin worth one tenth of a drachma, or about an hour’s wages for an agricultural laborer. Mt 10:29; Lu 12:6.

aureus

A Roman gold coin, worth 25 silver denarii. An aureus weighed from 115 to 126.3 grains (7.45 to 8.18 grams).

Azotus

Greek name for Hebrew Ashdod. The disciple Philip proclaimed the Good News of Messiah there. Ac 8:40.

baal

Meaning “master”, “lord”, and by extension, “husband”. Ro 11:4.

Barabbas

For Aramaic Bar-Abba, meaning “son of father”. Jerome notes in the 4th century that the name in the Hebrew version of Matthew meant “son of the teacher”. The 16th century DuTillet Hebrew Matthew manuscript found in Rome from the Jewish community reads “Bar Rabba,” meaning “son of the teacher.” Mt 27:16.

Barnabas

English for Aramaic Bar-Nabba, meaning “exhorter” or “consolation.” Companion of Shaul, and possible writer of the book of Hebrews. Ac 4:36.

Barsabbas

English for Aramaic Bar-Sabba, meaning “son of Sabba” (Greek Barsabbas; Latin Barsabban). Also called Joseph and Justus. Ac 1:23,15:22.

Bartholomew

English for Aramaic Bar-Talmai, meaning “son of Ptolomy” (Greek Bartholomaios; Latin Bartholomeus). One of the Twelve Emissaries. Mt 10:3.

Bartimaeus

English for Aramaic Bar-Timai (Greek Bartimaios; Latin Bartimeus), meaning “son of Timai” (or Timaeus). Mk 10:46.

Beelzebul

Greek for the Hebrew Baal-zebub (Aramaic Beelzebub), meaning “the lord of flies” (2Ki 1:2,3,16) Derogatory name for the adversary (Satan).

Beersheba

Hebrew, meaning “well of the oath” or “well of the seven.” A city in Israel.

Belial

Hebrew, meaning “good-for-nothing” or “wicked” (Greek Beliar; Latin Belial), a name used in the NT for Satan. 2Cor 6:15.

Benei-Regesh

(Boanerges)--meaning “sons of thunder,” “sons of rage/tumult,” or Benei-Rogez “sons of anger.” Mk 3:17, 9:38, Lu 9:5.

Besorat HaMashiach

Good News of the Messiah. Also known as Brit Chadasha or New Covenant. Twenty seven books penned by the followers of Messiah Yeshua between 30 and 96 CE.

bet

(beth)--Second letter of the Hebrew alphabet.

Bethany

(Beit-Anyah or Beit-Ani)--Aramaic, meaning “house of poverty” (Greek Bethania; Latin Bethaniam). Mt 21:17, Yo 1:28.

Bethesda

(Beit-Chesed)--Aramaic, meaning “house of mercy.” Yo 5:2.

Bethlehem

Hebrew, meaning “house of bread.” Originally called Efrat (Ge 35:16,19 48:7 Ru 4:11) and then Beit-Lechem Efratah (Mic 5:2), where Messiah was born (Mt 2:1 Lu 2:4-16)

Bethsaida

Aramaic, meaning “house of nets.” Mt 11:21.

Bethsphage

Aramaic, meaning “house of unripe figs” (Greek Bethphage; Latin Bethfage). A village on the Mt of Olives. Mt 21:1.

Brit Chadasha

(Breet Cha-da-sha)--Hebrew for New Covenant. Mt 26:28, Heb 8:8 (Jer 31:30), 9:15, 12:24, and elsewhere.

Chumash

Literally means a fifth. The Five books of Moses; Pentateuch.

denarius

A silver Roman coin worth about a day’s wages for an agricultural laborer. A denarius was worth 1/25th of a Roman aureus. Mt 20:2.

devil

“Slanderer,” “accusing falsely.” From the Greek “diabolos” (Latin: diabolo; Aramaic: Akel Kartza). “Devil” is used to refer to a fallen angel, also called “Satan,” who works to steal, kill, destroy, and do evil. The devil’s doom is certain, and it is only a matter of time before he is thrown into the Lake of Fire, never to escape.

diaspora

Dispersion of God’s people among the nations. Jac 1:1.

didrachma

A Greek silver coin worth 2 drachmas, about as much as 2 Roman denarii, or about 2 days wages. It was commonly used to pay the half-shekel temple tax.

distaff

part of a spinning wheel used for twisting threads.

drachma

A Greek silver coin worth about one Roman denarius, or about a day’s wages for an agricultural laborer.

efah

(ephah)--A measure of volume of about 22 liters, 5.8 U. S. gallons, 4.8 imperial gallons, or a bit more than half a bushel.

Eli

Hebrew for English (Aramaic and Latin) Heli. In Messianic genealogy. Lu 3:23.

Elisheva

Hebrew for English Elizabeth (Greek Elisabet; Latin Elisabeth) Lu 1:5-57.

emissary

(Apostle)--Meaning “special messenger,” “envoy” or “ambassador” (Hebrew malak; Greek apostolos; Latin apostolus).

Emmaus

A village “three-score furlongs” from Jerusalem, where Messiah had an interview with two of his disciples on the day of his resurrection. Lu 24:13.

Eretz-Israel

The land of Israel.

Galilee

From Latin Galilaeae, or Greek Galilaia, the Septuagint translation for Hebrew Galil (Aramaic Galeela). This was one of the provinces of Israel during the Roman occupation, including an area given by King Solomon as a gift to King Hiram.

Gamaliel

The grandson of Hillel who taught at the school of Hillel, then center of Pharisaic Judaism, and was president of the Sanhedrin during the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius. Saul of Tarsus was a student of Gamaliel. Gamaliel is quoted in Acts as counseling a moderate, calm, and cautious attitude toward the followers of Yeshua, saying to leave them alone. For if the followers activity is of human origin, it will fail, “But if it is of God, you will not be able to overthrow it, and you would be found even to be fighting against God!” (5:35-39).

Gaza

Greek for the town of 'Aza. Acts 8:26.

Gehinnom

(Gehenna) Hebrew for “Valley of Hinnom” (Greek geenna; Latin gehennae). Usually rendered Gehenna. A ravine south of Jerusalem where constant fires were kept burning to consume refuse including the dead bodies of animals and criminals. Used figuratively in the NT for hell, a fiery place of eternal punishment for the ungodly dead (Mt 5:22)

Gennesaret

A town of Naphtali, called Kinneret (Jos 19:35). In later times the name was gradually changed to Genezar, Gennesaret (Latin Gennesar), and Ginosar. Mt 14:34, Mk 6:53, Lu 5:1.

gimel

Third letter of the Hebrew alphabet.

Gomorrah

Greek for Hebrew ‘Amorah. (Latin: Gomorram) Wicked city destroyed by God in the time of Abraham (Gen 19). Mt 10:15.

Gospel

(Greek: euaggelion; Latin: evangelium) “Good news” or “glad tidings,” specifically the Good News of Yeshua's life, death, and resurrection for our salvation, healing, and provision; and the hope of eternal life that Yeshua made available to us by God's grace.

Hades

See Sheol, the Hebrew equivalent.

Halfai

(Alphaeus)-- From the Greek Alphaios (Aramaic Khalfai; Latin Alphei). Mt 10:3.

hallel

Hebrew, meaning “praise.” Psa 113-118 and 136 are recited as part of the Seder service. Mt 26:30.

Hananiah

(Ananias)-Meaning “Yah is gracious.” 1. One of the members of the Messianic Synagogue at Jerusalem, who conspired with his wife Shappirah to deceive the brethren, and who fell down and immediately died after he had spoken the falsehood (Ac 5:5) 2. A Messianic at Damascus (Ac 9:10). 3. The high priest before whom Shaul was brought (Ac 23:2,5,24)

Hannah

Hebrew for English (Greek and Latin) Anna (Aramaic Khanna). A prophetess. Lu 2:36.

Hanukkah

The Festival of Dedication. Observed on the 25th of Kislev when the Temple was rededicated in 165 or 164 BCE. Yeshua also observed this festival. Yo 10:22.

Har-Megiddo

(Armageddon, Megiddo)-Meaning “mountain/hill of Megiddo.” Rev 16:16.

HaShem

Hebrew, meaning “The Name,” i.e., YHWH. 3 Yo 1:7.

Havah

(Eve) Hebrew for English Eve, from Old English Efe and Late Latin Eva (Greek Eua(n): Latin Hava(m)), meaning “living, life, life-giving.” Also called the “Mother of All Living” (Hebrew em kal hay) Ge 3:20; 2 Co 11:3; 1 Ti 2:13.

Herod Agrippa I

Grandson of Herod the Great. He became tetrarch beginning in 40 CE and then king from 41-44 CE. He put the emissary Jacob the elder to death, and put Kefa Petros into prison (Lu 3:1, 23:7 Ac 12:1-19)

Herod Agrippa II

Son of Agrippa I. The Emperor Claudius gave him the office of superintendent of the Temple of Jerusalem in 48 CE, and later was made king of Judea, 53 92 CE, and was governor over the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias (Ac 25:13 26:2,7) It was before him that Paul was delivered in 59 CE (Ac 26:1 ). Though a Jew in religion, he was entirely devoted to the Romans, and sent 2000 men to support Vespasian during the Jewish Revolt.

Herod Archelaus

The Latin name of the son of Herod the Great, and brother of Herod Antipas, who became king of Judea, Samaria and Idumea after Herod the Great’s death in about January 1 CE. (Aramaic Arkhilius; Greek Archelaos) Mt 2:22.

Herod Phillip II

Son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem who ruled from about 1 CE till the 22nd year of Tiberius, about 36 CE. He ruled Ituraea, Trachonitis, Batanea and Auranitis. Lu 3:1.

Herod the Great

First appointed tetrarch of Judea by his Idumaean father Antipater, and later king of Judea about 37 BCE when he sacked Jerusalem. He restored the ruined temple of Jerusalem, a work which began about 20 BCE but was uncompleted at at the time of his death. A Census, registration, or oath of loyalty to Augustus was undertaken to be finished before Feb 5, 2 B.C.E. in the 13th consulship of Augustus. This was probably the enrollment mentioned in Luke 2:1. Herod died soon after a lunar eclipse, possibly the one of Dec 29 1 BCE, and his kingdom was divided among his three remaining sons, Philip who had Ituraea and Trachonitis, Antipas who had Galilee and Perea, and Archelaus who had Judea and Samaria.

hin

A hin was about 6.5 liters or 1.7 gallons.

Hoshana Rabbah

“The great day” of the week long Sukkot festival. Yo 7:37.

hypocrite

a stage actor; someone who pretends to be someone other than who they really are; a dissembler

Immanuel

Meaning “with us is God” or “God with us.” Mt 1:23.

Iscariot

Possibly meaning “man of Kriot,” “from Kriot,” or “from Skriot.” Kerioth or Kriot was a city in the Negev (Jos 15:25).

Israel

Meaning “Prince with God” or “He strives with God”. The name given by an angel to Jacob son of Isaac after wrestling with him (Gen 32:24-28).

Jacob

Hebrew Ya'akov. Found in the Greek NT as Iakob, Iakobo, Iakobos, and Iakobon. The latter three have been traditionally translated as James since at least the 14th century. The English name “James” appears to come from Hebrew Yaakov through Greek Iakobos and late Latin Iacomus. In the Latin Vulgate it is Iacobo, Iacobus, Iacobi, and Iacobum (Aramaic Yacob).

Jairus

Latin for Hebrew Yair (Aramaic Yu'arash; Greek Iaeiros). Ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose only daughter Messiah restored to life. Mk 5:22 Lu 8:41.

Jerusalem

Hebrew Yerushalaim or Yerushalayim, possibly meaning “Foundation/City of Peace”. The earlier name of the city was apparently Shalem (Genesis 14:18). Abraham had renamed the site at Moriah (Gen 22:2; 2Chr 3:1) as “YHWH Yireh” (Gen 22:14), when a substitute sacrifice for his son Isaac was provided, being caught in a thicket. In the conjunction of Yireh with Shalem the weak consonants disappeared to form Yerushalem. The name Yireh usually means “will see”, but is later suggested as “will provide”, when Abraham answered Isaac that “God will provide (Yireh) himself a lamb” (Gen 22:8). Thus the LORD of vision is the LORD of provision. The substitute sacrifice, with a thicket over his head, was to be the Messiah (Isa 53:10; Mt 27:29). Capital city of all Israel since the time of king David ca. 1000 BCE.

Judah

Hebrew Yehudah (Aramaic Yehuda; Greek Ioudas; Latin Iudas). In the Greek NT traditionally translated variously as Judah, Judas, and Jude.

Kefa

(Cephas) Aramaic meaning “a stone.” The name given to Simon son of Jonah by the Messiah.

Kuza

Aramaic for English Chuza (Greek Chouzas; Latin Chuza)

Labbai

(Lebbaeus)-Aramaic meaning “flaming with fire.” The Greek means “courageous.” Mt 10:3. One of the Twelve emissaries, also called Taddi (Thaddaeus) Mt 10:3 Mk 3:18. According to a tradition, Labbai is the same person as “Judah the son [or brother] of Jacob.” Lu 6:16

Lazarus

Latin for Hebrew El'azar (Aramaic Lazar; Greek Lazaros). Lu 16:20-25, Yo 11:1-12:17.

lepta

Very small, brass, Jewish coins worth half a Roman quadrans each, which is worth a quarter of the copper assarion. Lepta are worth less than 1% of an agricultural worker’s daily wages.

Luke

Writer of the books of Luke and Acts (Aramaic Luqa; Greek Loukas; Latin Lucas). Accompanied Saul of Tarsus on several journeys.

Magdalene

Latin for Hebrew Magdalit (Aramaic Magdalith; Greek Magdalenos). Possibly meaning of the town of Magdala, which was near Tiberius on the coast of Galilee. In Syriac the root gdl means “to braid, twist”, and there is a tradition that this Miriam was called “Magdalene” because she braided her hair. Mt 27:56, etc.

Manaen

Menachem--“comforter”. Ac 13:1.

Manah

(Menan)--In Messianic genealogy. Lu 3:31.

marriage

the union of a husband and a wife for the purpose of cohabitation, procreation, and to enjoy each other’s company. God’s plan for marriage is between one man and one woman (Mark 10:6-9; 1 Corinthians 7). Although there are many cases of a man marrying more than one woman in the Old Testament, being married to one wife is a prerequisite for those chosen to serve in certain church leadership positions (1 Timothy 3:2,12; Titus 1:5-6).

Matthew

(Mattithiah, Mattathias)--English for Hebrew Mattityah or Mattai (Aramaic Matti; Greek Maththaios; Latin Mattheum), meaning “gift of Yah.” He was the son of Halfai (Alphaeus), and was a tax-collector at Capernaum. He was called by Messiah to be one of the Twelve emissaries (Mt 9:9). In 1Chr 9 Ezra 10 Neh 8, and in Messianic genealogy. Lu 3:26.

Matthiah

Hebrew for Matthias (Greek Matthian(s); Latin Matthiam; Aramaic Matyah). Chosen as an emissary in place of Judah Iscariot. Ac 1:23, 26.

Mattithiah

See Matthew

matzah

Unleavened bread.

Melchizedek

For Hebrew Malki-Tzedek, “my king is righteousness.” Heb 5:6.

Menorah

Lamp. The menorah in the Temple had seven branches. Heb 9:2, Rev 1:12.

Messiah

(Mashiach)--Literally, “anointed one,” usually a consecrated person (as a king or kohen). The English equivalent for Hebrew Mashiach is “Messiah.” Equivalent to Greek christos, which also means “anointed one.” The word Mashiach comes from the root word mashach (mahshahkh). This word means to rub with oil, i.e., to anoint, by implication to consecrate. The children of Israel were also considered to be mashiach (anointed; 1Chr 16:20-22). Many of the objects used in Tabernacle and Temple worship were anointed. The tabernacle itself, the altar, the laver, and the garments of the priests are among those items mentioned. (Ex 40:9-13).

mikveh

Immersion in fresh water for ritual purification. Ti 3:5

mina

a Greek coin worth 100 Greek drachmas (or 100 Roman denarii), or about 100 day’s wages for an agricultural laborer.

Miriam

Hebrew for English Mary. In the Greek NT the name is given variously as Maria, Marian, and Mariam (Aramaic).

Nevi'im

Prophets, being the second of the three parts of the Tanakh.

Nicodemus

Latin for Hebrew Nakdimon (Aramaic Niqodemus; Greek Nikodemos), meaning “victorious”. A Pharisee and member of the Sanhedrin who talked with Messiah privately at night. Both he and Joseph of Arimathea, another Sanhedrin member, put Messiah’s body in the tomb after the crucifixion. Yo 3, 7, 19.

Nicolaitans

Most likely Gnostics who taught the detestable lie that the physical and spiritual realms were entirely separate and that immorality in the physical realm wouldn’t harm your spiritual health.

Penuel

(Phanuel)-Meaning “face of God” (Aramaic Panuel; Greek Phanouel; Latin Phanuhel).

Pharisee

English for Hebrew Parush pl. Perushim (Greek Pharisaios; Latin Pharisaee)

Pontus Pilate

Roman governor of Judea from 26-36 CE (Greek Pontios Pilatos; Latin Pontio Pilato). He hated the Jews and liberally shed their blood. He gave the final decision at the trial of the Messiah of execution by crucifixion, which during the killing of the Passover lamb was to fulfill the prophecies concerning the Messiah (Psalm 22, Isa 52-53, Zec 12:10, etc.).

Praetorium

The Roman governor's residence and office building, and those who work there.

Purim

A feast celebrated by the reading of the Scroll of Esther. The basic story of Purim is that under the rule of King Ahashuerus, Haman, the King’s prime minister, plots to exterminate all of the Jews of Persia. His plan is foiled by Queen Esther and her uncle Mordechai, who ultimately save the Jews of the land from destruction.

quadrans

A Roman coin worth about 1/64 of a denarius. A denarius is about one day’s wages for an agricultural laborer.

rabbi

My teacher

Rabboni

Meaning “My Great/Honored Teacher/Rabbi”. Mk 10:51 Yo 20:16.

Ram

(Aram)--In Messianic genealogy. Lu 3:33.

repent

to change one’s mind; turn away from sin and turn towards God; to abhor one’s past sins and determine to follow God.

Rephan

Reifan--Babylonian god corresponding to Saturn. Ac 7:43.

Saducee

English for Hebrew Tzeduk pl. Tzedukim. The Saducees, who rejected the Prophets and Writings, holding only to the Torah, didn't believe in life after death or angels.

saint

Greek hagios, equivalent to Hebrew kadosh, hasid, and tzaddik, meaning: holy one, righteous, just, sacred, set-apart, consecrated, godly, spiritual leader, dedicated, faithful, merciful and kind.

sata

A dry measure of capacity approximately equal to 13 liters or 1.5 pecks.

Saul

English for Hebrew Sha'ul, who also had the Greek name Paulos. He was born in Tarsus and brought up in Jerusalem. He was a Pharisee of the tribe of Benjamin and student of Gamaliel, whose teaching can be seen in Saul’s constant use of known Hillelian Hermeneutics. Saul first persecuted the disciples of Messiah until his vision of Messiah on the way to Damascus. Known writer of 13 letters in the B'rit Hadasha.

scribe

One who copies God’s Torah (Hebrew sofer; Greek grammateus; Latin scriba). They were often respected as teachers and authorities on God’s Torah.

Sea of Suf

Yam Suf, or Sea of Reeds; also called the Red Sea in the Septuagint and in the Greek of Ac 7:36 and Heb 11:29. This body of water may have also been called Yam Sof, or Sea at the End. This is the large body of water that the Israelites miraculously crossed on dry ground, but Pharaoh's army drowned when they tried to cross behind them. See Ex 14 and 15.

selah

A musical term indicating a pause or instrumental interlude for reflection.

shalom

Peace, well-being , safety, contentment, health, comfort, integrity and wholeness. “Shalom!” is a common greeting. Also a proper name (Salome) Hebrew for Greek and Latin Salome (Aramaic Shalom) Mk 15:40 16:1

shammash

pl. shammashim--attendant, servant, deacon. Lu 4:20.

Shappirah

(Sapphira)--Ac 5:1.

Shaul

(Saul)--“Asked (of Yah).”

Shema

(or Sh'ma) the most famous verse in Judaism is the Shema, found in Deuteronomy 6:4: Shema Israel Adonai Elohenu Adonai echad. “Hear oh Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is one.” “Shema,” usually translated “hear,” is a complex word that means to, “accept, implying faith, commitment, and obedience.” It is repeated by the Messiah as being among the most important verses in the Torah. Mk 12:29

Sheol

The abode of departed spirits of the lost (but including the blessed dead in periods preceding the Ascension of Messiah, wherein they were apparently in a separate area). Sometimes translated “grave,” “nether world,” “underworld,” “the Pit,” and “hell” (Greek Hades; Latin infern(os,us,um)), although hell is more synonymous with Gehinnom (Gehenna).

Shlomit

(Salome) Hebrew for Greek and Latin Salome (Aramaic Shalom) Mk 15:40 16:1

shofar

Ram's horn. Often rendered as “trumpet.” Mt 24:31.

Shoshanah

Hebrew for Latin Susanna (Aramaic Shushan; Greek Sousanna), meaning “Lily” or “rose”. Lu 8:3.

soul

Living being, life, self. The emotions and intellect of a living person, as well as that person’s very life. It is distinguished in the Bible from a person’s spirit and body. (1Thes 5:23, Heb 4:12)

span

The length from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger when the hand is stretched out (about 9 inches or 22.8 cm.).

spirit

Spirit, breath, and wind all derive from the same Hebrew and Greek words. A person’s spirit is the very essence of that person's life, which comes from God, who is a Spirit being (Yo 4:24, Gen 1:2; 2:7). The Bible distinguishes between a person’s spirit, soul, and body (1Thes 5:23, Heb 4:12). Some beings may exist as spirits without necessarily having a visible body, such as angels and demons (Lu 9:39, 1 Yo 4:1-3).

stadia

Plural for “stadion,” a linear measure of about 184.9 meters or 606.6 feet (the length of the race course at Olympia).

stater

a Greek silver coin equivalent to four Attic or two Alexandrian drachmas, or a Jewish shekel: just exactly enough to cover the half-shekel Temple Tax for two people.

Sukkot

(Booths, Tabernacles)--Festival of Booths (Hebrew Chag HaSukkot) to be observed the fifteenth day of the seventh month. Lev 23:34, Yo 7:2.

Taddai

Hebrew for English Thaddaeus (Greek Thaddaios; Latin Thaddeus), one of the Twelve emissaries of Yeshua. Mt 10:3.

talent

A measure of weight or mass of 3000 shekels.

Tanakh

An acronym formed from the three divisions of the Hebrew bible: Torah, Nevi'im and Ketuvim.

Tartarus

Greek for the place of eternal punishment but in 2Pe 2:4 applied to the intermediate sphere of punishment for fallen angels (Latin Tartarum).

tav

twenty-second and last letter of the Hebrew alphabet.

Tavita

Aramaic for Greek Tabitha (Latin Tabitas). Woman in Joppa whom Kefa raised from the dead. Ac 9:36,40.

tefillin

(phylacteries)--A leather container for holding a small scroll containing important Scripture passages that is worn on the arm and forehead in prayer. Tefillin are still used by orthodox Jewish men. See Deu 6:8 and Mt 23:5.

Tehillim

(Psalms)--songs and poetry

Theophilis

Person written to by Luke (Greek Theophilos; Latin Theophile; Aramaic Tawfeela). May have been the High Priest of Jerusalem of that name in 37-41 C.E. He was a Sadducee (Tzeduk). Lu 1:3.

Thomas

Latin and Greek for Hebrew T'oma (Aramaic Tooma). One of the emissaries of Messiah.

Timaeus

Latin for Hebrew Timai (Aramaic Timi; Greek Timaios). Mk 10:46.

Todah

(Theudas) see Ac 5:36

Torah

(Law, law)--“Teaching.” The Five Books of Moses, being the first of the three parts of the Tanakh. Usually translated “Law” since Greek uses the word nomos to render Hebrew Torah.

tzitzit

pl. tzitziot - specially made fringes worn on the four corners of a man’s tallit, fulfilling the commandment in Num 15:37-41.

Yeshua

Hebrew for English Jesus, the Messiah of Israel. The Greek Iesou(s) was used in the Septuagint for both Joshua and Jeshua, the later being a post exilic variant for Joshua (Neh 8:17). In the Greek New Covenant Iesous is traditionally translated three times as Joshua (Lu 3:29, Ac 7:45, Heb 4:8), but left in all other instances to the literal Greek pronunciation. The Besorat HaMashiach follows the mainstream Messianic translation of the remaining Greek instances of Iesous as the Hebrew Yeshua.

yeshu'ah

“salvation”; used in a word play on Yeshua's name at Lu 2:30.

Yochanah

Hebrew for English Joanna (Aramaic Yokhan; Greek Ioanna; Latin Iohanna). Wife of Chuza, the steward of Herod, and a follower of Yeshua (Lu 8:3 24:10; Yo)

Yochanan

(Johanan, John) meaning “Yah is Gracious” (Aramaic Yukhanan; Greek Ioannes; Latin Iohannes).

Yom-Kippur

The Day of Atonement. Observed on the tenth day of the seventh month (10th Tishri; Lev 23:27). The “fast” noted in Acts 27:9 is probably Yom Kippur.

Yosi

(Joses)- Shortened form of Joseph (Aramaic Yosea, Yoseh; Greek Ioses; Latin Ioseph). 1. One of the half-brothers of Yeshua (Mt 13:55 27:56 Mk 6:3 15:40, 47) 2. A Cypriot Levite surnamed Barnabas (Ac 4:36).

Zacchaeus

Latin for Hebrew Zakkai (Aramaic Zachai; Greek Zakchaios), which is short for Zechariah. Lu 19:2,5,8.

Zebedee

English for Hebrew Zavdai (Aramaic Zawdee; Greek Zebedaios; Latin Zebedaei). Father of the Emissaries Jacob and Yochanan.

 


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